2018 Arizona Insect Collecting Trip “iReport”

Hot on the heels of the previous installment in this series, I present the sixth “Collecting Trip iReport”; this one covering a trip to Arizona during July/August 2018 with Art Evans and—like the previous installments in this series—illustrated exclusively with iPhone photographs (see previous installments for 2013 Oklahoma2013 Great Basin2014 Great Plains, 2015 Texas, and 2018 New Mexico/Texas).

This trip was a reunion of sorts—not only had it been 20 years since I’d collected in Arizona, it had also been 20 years since I’d spent time in the field with Art Evans—which just happened to be in southeast Arizona! For years I looked forward to our next opportunity, and when he told me of his plans for an extended trip to take photographs of his forthcoming Beetles of the Western United States, I couldn’t pass up the chance. Art had already been out west for five weeks by the time I landed in Phoenix on July 28th, and together we drove to Cave Creek Canyon in the Chiricahua Mountains and spent the night before beginning a 7-day adventure in and around the “Sky Islands” of southeastern Arizona.

As with the recent New Mexico/Texas post, the material collected still has not been completely processed and curated, so I don’t have final numbers of taxa collected, but there were a number of species—some highly desirable—that I managed to find and collect for the first time, e.g., the buprestids Acmaeodera yuccavoraAgrilus restrictus, Agr. arizonicusChrysobothris chiricauhuaMastogenius puncticollis, and Lampetis webbii and the cerambycids Tetraopes discoideus and Stenaspis verticalis. Who knows what as-yet-unrecognized goodies await my discovery in the still unprocessed material?!


Day 1 – Chiricahua Mountains, Cave Creek Canyon
After arriving at Cave Creek Ranch late last night, we awoke to some stunning views right outside our room!

Image may contain: mountain, sky, tree, outdoor and nature

View of Cave Creek Canyon at Cave Creek Ranch, Chiricahua Mountains.

Image may contain: sky, mountain, tree, outdoor and nature

Cave Creek Ranch, Cave Creek Canyon, Chiricahua Mountains.

Image may contain: tree, plant, sky, bridge, shoes, outdoor and nature

Cave Creek Ranch, Cave Creek Canyon, Chiricahua Mountains.

The first buprestid of the trip was a series of Pachyschelus secedens on Desmodium near Stewart Campground. We beat the oaks and acacia along the way to Sunny Flat Campground but didn’t find much. Once we got near Sunny Flat I did some sweeping in an area with new growth of Helianthus sp. and got a series of Agrilus huachucae, a few lycids, and one Leptinotarsa rubiginosa. I beat one Acmaeodera cazieri from Acacia greggii and found another on flower of prickly poppy (Argemone sp.). On the roadside at Sunny Flat I found several Acmaeodera spp. on a yellow-flowered composite – one A. rubronotata, one A. solitaria(?), and three A. cazieri. Also collected one A. cazieri on a rain gauge, Mecas rotundicollis and one as yet undetermined acanthocinine cerambycid on miscellaneous foliage, one tiger beetle (Cicindela sedecimpunctata?) on the roadside, and two orange lycids in flight.

Image may contain: tree, cloud, sky, mountain, plant, outdoor and nature

Majestic peaks loom over the canyon.

Image may contain: plant, flower, outdoor and nature

Blue pleasing fungus beetle (Gibbifer californicus) – family Erotylidae.

Image may contain: 2 people, including Ted MacRae, mountain, sky, outdoor and nature

Me with Margarethe Brummermann.

Image may contain: plant, nature and outdoor

Reddish potato beetle (Leptinotarsa rubiginosa) is an uncommon relative of the much more well known (and despised) Colorado potato beetle (L. decemlineata).

Image may contain: one or more people, mountain, cloud, sky, tree, outdoor and nature

Margarethe Brummermann searches for beetles in Sunny Flat Campground.

Image may contain: plant, flower, outdoor and nature

Bordered patch (Chlosyne lacinia) – family Nymphalidae.

Desert flats east of Portal, Arizona
We came to this spot to look for Sphaerobothris ulkei on joint-fir (Ephedra trifurca), but after not finding any for awhile I got distracted by some big buprestids flying around. Caught several Hippomelas sphenicus, one Gyascutus caelatus, and two Acmaeodera gibbula on Acacia rigida, and the first and third were also on Prosopis glandulosa along with Plionoma suturalis. We finally found S. ulkei – searched the area for almost three hours, and Art and I each caught two and Margarethe caught one – also one each of P. suturalis and A. gibbula. I also got a mating pair of A. gibbula on Acacia greggii. After dinner, we went back and placed an ultraviolet light – checked it a couple hours later and got a nice series of Cylindera lemniscata and a few meloids (for Jeff).

Image may contain: mountain, sky, cloud, outdoor and nature

Desert flats below Portal, Arizona – dominant woody vegetation is mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), sweet acacia (Acacia rigida), and three-pronged joint-fir (Ephedra trifurca).

Image may contain: one or more people and camera

Art Evans photographing Hippomelas planicauda in the ‘studio’ afterwards.

Image may contain: outdoor

Sphaerobothris ulkei, collected on Ephedra trifurca.

Day 1 of the trip ended in typical monsoon fashion – heavy, thunderous rainstorms moved into the area during late afternoon, dimming prospects for blacklighting. Still, we set them up anyway at several spots and checked them later in the evening (flood waters preventing us from going to all the spots we wanted to). Not surprisingly, the one trap that yielded interesting specimens was in the lowest (warmest) area and received the least amount of rain. For me it was a nice series of Cylindera lemniscata.

IMG_3133 (Edited)

Image may contain: mountain, sky, outdoor, nature and water

Image may contain: 2 people, including Ted MacRae, mountain, beard, cloud, outdoor and nature


Day 2 – Southwestern Research Station, Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona
There is a large stand of a narrow-leaved milkweed (Asclepias sp.) at the station, so we stopped by in our way up the mountain to check it for beetles. Got a nice little series of Tetraopes discoideus (tiny little guys!) on the stems as well as a few Rhopalophora meeskei, two Lycus spp., and one Pelonides humeralis on the flowers.

Image may contain: plant, outdoor and nature

Tetraopes discoideus (family Cerambycidae).

Image may contain: flower, plant, nature and outdoor

Rhopalophora meeskei and Lycus sp. on Asclepias sp.

IMG_3151 (Edited)

At the Southwestern Research Station with Barbara Roth, Art Evans, and Margarethe Brummermann.

Road from Southwestern Research Station to Ruster Park
After leaving the SWRS on our way up to Rustler Park, we stopped to check a couple of bushes of New Mexico raspberry (Rubus neomexicanus). Margarethe thought there might be lepturines on the flowers, but instead we found a few Acmaeodera spp. and some Rhopalophora meeskei.

Image may contain: flower, plant, sky, outdoor and nature

New Mexico raspberry (Rubus neomexicanus).

Further up the road we made another quick stop to check roadside flowers – just a single A. rubronotata on a yellow-flowered composite, but spectacular views of the valley below.

Image may contain: mountain, sky, tree, outdoor and nature

Looking west from the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona.

Gayle Nelson once told me about finding Chrysobothris chiricahuae on pine slash at Rustler Park, so I was pleased to see several fresh slash piles when we arrived. I saw a Chrysobothris (presumably this species) on the very first branch in the very first pile that I looked at, but I missed it (damn!) and didn’t see any more in that pile. However, in the next pile I visited I saw two and got them both. I looked at a third pile and didn’t see any, nor did I see any more on the two previous piles that I looked at. Still, two is better than none (assuming this is, indeed, what they are!).

Image may contain: cloud, sky, tree, outdoor and nature

Rustler Park, Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona.

Chiricahua National Monument
Not a bug collecting stop, but we wanted to drive into the monument and see the incredible rock formations which are best appreciated by driving through Bonita Canyon and then up to Massai Point. The unusual spires, columns, and balancing rocks are a result of erosion through vertical cracks in the compressed volcanic ash which was laid down in layers 25 million years ago and then uplifted. Tilting during uplift caused vertical fractures and slippage, into which water then worked its way to create today’s formations. One of the columns I saw is 143 feet tall and only 3 feet in diameter at one point near the base! Mexican jays were our constant, close companions as we hiked through the pinyon pine/oak/juniper woodland.

Image may contain: cloud, mountain, sky, outdoor and nature

Image may contain: sky, outdoor and nature

Image may contain: sky, cloud, mountain, outdoor and nature

Image may contain: sky, mountain, cloud, tree, outdoor and nature

Vicinity Gleeson, Arizona
There is a wash across N Ghosttown Trail with stands of Baccharis sarothroides growing along the sides. Art previously collected a single Cotinis impia on one of the plants, so we came back to check them. We didn’t find any, but we did find two fine males and one female Trachyderes mandibularis on a couple of the plants. I also found a dead Polycesta aruensis.

Image may contain: cloud, sky, nature and outdoor

Vicinity Tombstone, Arizona
Art saw Gyascutus caelatus here previously, so we came back and found them abundantly in sweet acacia (Acacia rigidula), which was in full bloom. They were extremely flighty and hard to catch, so we each got only four. I also collected one Stenaspis solitaria on the same and a Trachyderes mandibularis female in flight.

Image may contain: outdoor

Trachyderes mandibularis female

At another spot nearby, we stopped to look for Lampetus webbii, which Art had seen but not been able to collect when he was here a couple of weeks ago. We did not see any (but read on…), and I saw but did not collect a Trachyderes mandibularis and two Stenaspis solitaria. I also saw and photographed some giant mesquite bugs (Thasus neocalifornicus).

Image may contain: plant, outdoor and nature

Giant mesquite bugs (Thasus neocalifornicus).

Image may contain: plant and outdoor

Note the heavily armed and thickened hind legs of the male (L) versus the more slender and red/black banded hind legs of the female (R).

Image may contain: flower, plant, sky, outdoor and nature

Not sure of the ID (other than ‘DYC’ – damned yellow composite).

The day ended enjoying steaks, Malbec, and Jameson with two of the best hosts ever!

Image may contain: one or more people, people sitting, table and indoor


Day 3 – Box Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
Our first stop of the day was Box Canyon, a gorgeous, rugged canyon on the east side of the range. Mimosa dysocarpa was in bloom, off which I beat two Agrilus aeneocephalus, several Hippomelas planicauda, and one Stenaspis solitaria. Norm gave me an Acmaeodera cazieri that he’d collected on an unidentified yellow-flowered composite, and right afterwards I found some small, low-growing plants with purple flowers and sticky leaves (eventually ID’d as Allionia incarnata, or trailing four o’clock) to which Acmaeodera yuccavora and A. cazieri were flying in numbers. After that I crawled up top and beat the mesquites, getting one Chrysobothris sp., a mating pair of S. solitaria, and a couple of large clytrine leaf beetles.

Image may contain: mountain, sky, cloud, tree, grass, plant, outdoor and nature

Box Canyon from just above the dry falls.

Image may contain: flower, plant, sky, nature and outdoor

Prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana) blooming along the roadside.

Image may contain: plant, outdoor and nature

Hippomelas planicauda mating pair on Mimosa dysocarpa.

Image may contain: plant, flower, nature and outdoor

Allionia incarnata, flower host for Acmaeodera cazieri and Acm. yuccavora.

Image may contain: plant, flower, nature and outdoor

Acmaeodera cazieri (left-center).

Image may contain: flower, plant, nature and outdoor

Acmaeodera yuccavora.

Image may contain: plant, flower, tree, outdoor and nature

Lubber grasshopper (Taenipoda eques). The striking coloration warns potential predators that it is chemically protected.

Image may contain: sky, cloud, plant, outdoor and nature

Datana sp. caterpillars.

Vicinity Duquesne, Arizona
We came here to look for Tetraopes skillmani (this is the type locality). We found the host plant (Sarcostemma sp.), but there were no beetles to be seen anywhere. Maybe another location nearby…

Image may contain: plant, flower, nature and outdoor

Sarcostemma sp. (family Asclepiadaceae).

Image may contain: plant, flower, nature and outdoor

Patagonia Pass, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona
We went up higher into the mountains to get into the oak woodland, where I hoped to find some of the harder-to-collect oak-associated Agrilus spp. Right away I beat one Agrilus restrictus off of Emory oak (Quercus emoryi), but no amount of beating produced anything more than a single Enoclerus sp.. I also beat the Arizona oak (Q. arizonica) and got only a single Macrosaigon sp. On Desmodium sp. I collected not only Pachyschelus secedens but a nice series of Agrilus arizonicus. For me it is the first time I’ve collected either A. restrictus and A. arizonicus, the former being quite uncommon as well, so all-in-all not a bad stop.

Image may contain: plant, flower, outdoor and nature

Agrilus arizonicus mating pair – the males are brighter green than the females, which are more coppery.

Image may contain: plant, sky, flower, tree, nature and outdoor

Unidentified plant.

Image may contain: 3 people, including Ted MacRae and Norm Woodley, cloud, sky, outdoor and nature

Me, Art Evans, and Norm Woodley.

Sycamore Canyon, Santa Cruz Mountains, Arizona
We came here for night lighting, but while we still had light I did some sweeping in the low vegetation and collected a mixed series of Agrilus arizonicus (on Desmodium sp.) and Agrilus pulchellus – the latter a first for me, along with two small cerambyids that could be Anopliomorpha rinconia. Conditions were perfect (warm, humid, and no moon), and we had lots of lights (Art’s five LED units, Steve’s MV/UV combo setup, and my UV setup), but longhorned beetles were scarce – just one Prionus heroicus and one Lepturges sp. for me, and Steve got a few others including a nice Aegomorphus sp. I did also collect a few scarabs – Chrysina gloriosa and Strategus alous – because they’re just so irresistible!

Image may contain: night and outdoor

A beacon in the night!

Image may contain: 1 person, smiling, standing, night, tree, plant, outdoor and nature

Art, Steve, and Norm checking the lights.

Image may contain: plant

Chrysina gloriosa.

No photo description available.

A male oz beetle (Strategus aloeus).

No photo description available.

Eacles oslari is a western U.S. relative of the imperial moth (E. imperialis).

Image may contain: 1 person

Insects whirring around my head!


Day 4 – Prologue
One of the downsides (if you can call it that) of having great collecting is the need to take periodic “breaks” to process all the specimens and make my field containers available for even more specimens. Thanks to Steve and Norm for making their place available to Art and I so we can do this before heading out to our next set of localities.

No photo description available.

Copper Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona
Copper Canyon is the classic spot for finding the charismatic Agrilus cavatus (see photo), but first we did some sweeping in the low vegetation near the parking area, where Norm got one Agrilus arizonicus and two Agrilus latifrons – and gave them to me! (Thanks, Norm!) I did some beating of the oaks, and after much work I ended up with a single Agrilaxia sp. and pogonocherine cerambycid on Emory oak (Quercus emoryi) and a couple of giant clytrines on the Arizona oak (Q. arizonicus). I then started sweeping the low-growing Acaciella angustissima – right away I got two A. cavatus. They were in the area past the cattle guard on the right where lots of dead stems were sticking up, and although I continued to sweep the plants more broadly in the area I never saw another one. Finally, Norm called me up to a small Mimosa dysocarpa near the car off which he collected three Agrilus elenorae – and gave them to me! (Thanks, Norm!) I gave the tree a tap and got one more, and in my last round of sweeping I came up with a Taphrocerus sp. (must be some sedges growing amongst the grasses).

Image may contain: cloud, sky, mountain, tree, outdoor and nature

Copper Canyon to the northwest.

Image may contain: cloud, mountain, sky, outdoor and nature

Copper Canyon to the north.

Image may contain: plant, outdoor and nature

Agrilus cavatus on its host plant, prairie acacia (Acaciella angustissima).

Image may contain: sky, outdoor and nature

Robber fly (family Asilidae) with prey (a ladybird beetle).

Bear Canyon Crossing, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona
There was quite a bit of Mimosa dysocarpa in bloom along the roadsides on the west side of the Bear Canyon crossing, which I beat hoping to find some more Agrilus elenorae. I didn’t find any, but I did get several more Hippomelas planicauda, which is a nice consolation prize – and a great photo of the last one! Other than that I did a lot of sweeping and found only a single Acmaeodera cazieri.

Image may contain: cloud, sky, tree, plant, mountain, outdoor and nature

Bear Canyon to the south.

Image may contain: mountain, sky, cloud, tree, plant, outdoor and nature

Bear Canyon to the north.

Image may contain: plant, sky, outdoor and nature

Hippomelas planicauda on one of its hosts, velvetpod mimosa (Mimosa dysocarpa).

Appleton-Whittell Research Ranch of the National Audubon Society, Elgin, Arizona
Cool temperatures and a blustery wind discouraged most insects from finding our blacklights. However, our blacklight did find some other interesting local residents. These two individuals could be the stripe-tailed scorpion, Paravaejovis (Hoffmannius) spinigerus, a common species in Arizona and southwestern New Mexico.

No photo description available.

No photo description available.


Day 5 – Miller Canyon Recreation Area, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona
There was a lot of Baccharis sarothroides growing in the lower canyon near the parking area, so I checked it all out hoping to find Tragidion annulatum. None were seen, and in fact there was very little insect life in general. I did pick up a couple of Acmaeodera solitaria by sweeping – not anything significant but the 15th species buprestid of the trip and found a dead Cotinis mutabilis, and Art got a nice series of Chalcolepidius click beetles on B. sarothroides and Prosopis glandulosa. Puzzling the lack of insect activity, given how green all the plants were and how fresh the growth looked. I guess we’ll have to look elsewhere.

Image may contain: plant, flower, sky, outdoor and nature

Acanthocephala thomasi, a leaf-footed bug (family Coridae).

Image may contain: plant, outdoor and nature

I was all lined up for a side shot of the bug when suddenly he took flight.

Image may contain: sky, cloud, mountain, tree, plant, outdoor and nature

Turkey vultures hanging out waiting for me to die!

Image may contain: sky, cloud, tree, mountain, outdoor and nature

Actually they were all hanging out around a dead cat, some of which I scared up as they were feeding on it.

Vicinity Naco, Arizona
We decided to try some desert thorn-scrub habitat so headed east towards Bisbee. Just north of Naco we saw some habitat where it had rained recently – everything was green with the sweet acacia (Acacia rigidula) and creosote (Larrea tridentata) in full bloom. Immediately out of the car I found a Dendrobias mandibularis on Baccharis sarothroides (and when I came back to it later I found a big, major male on it – see photos). On the sweet acacia we found a handful of Gyascutus caelatus (one of which I got a nice photo of), a mating pair of Sphaenothecus bivittatus, and a Cymatodera sp. Finally, out along the roadsides a riot of different yellow composites were in full bloom, including Heliomeris longifolia off which Art got a couple of Acmaeodera solitaria and I got two specimens of a large Acmaeodera sp. (blue-black with numerous small irregular yellow spots).

Image may contain: plant, flower, outdoor and nature

Dendrobias mandibularis – major male.

Image may contain: plant, outdoor and nature

Them’s some mandibles!

Image may contain: plant, sky, tree, flower, outdoor and nature

Gyascutus caelatus on Acacia rigidula.

Image may contain: flower, plant, nature and outdoor

A blister beetle (family Meloidae) in the genus Zonitis – either sayi or dunnianus – on Heliomeris longifolia.

Image may contain: flower, plant, sky, nature and outdoor

Heliomeris longifolia – host flower for both the Zonitis blister beetle and Acmaeodera sp. jewel beetle.

Vicinity Tombstone, Arizona
We decided to go back to the spot north of Tombstone where Art had earlier seen Lampetis webbii and give that species another shot. We looked at the Rhus sp. tree that he’d seen them on, and then we each followed the wash in opposite directions looking at the Rhus trees along them, which growing above the banks but never further away than about 25 feet. Along the way I collected several more Gyascutus caelatus on sweet acacia (Acacia rigida), which were more abundant this time than last and also easier to catch. After walking about 1/4-mile down the wash I saw something fly from a Rhus tree and land low on the bushes nearby. I quickly netted it, pulled it out, and was elated to see that it was, indeed, Lampetis webbii! I searched the Rhus in the area more carefully but didn’t find any more, then found some Rhus growing up along the road. At one point, I saw a large buprestid fly and land high in the top of another Rhus tree. I couldn’t tell for sure if it was L. webbii, but I extended my net as far as I could, positioned it beneath the beetle, and tapped the branch hoping it would fall in. Unfortunately, it flew away instead of dropping, so I can’t say for sure whether it was L. webbii or just a wayward G. caelatus. At any rate, L. webbii is yet another species that I have not collected before now and the 17th buprestid species of the trip.

Image may contain: outdoor and nature

Lampetis webbii, collected on Rhus sp.

Image may contain: plant and outdoor

Stenaspis solitaria on Acacia rigidula.

Ramsey Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona
After returning from Tombstone, we visited Pat & Lisa Sullivan at their home at the end of Ramsey Canyon. Pat is a scarab collector who runs lights at his home nightly, and after a delicious dinner we spent the rest of the evening checking the lights. I was hoping to collect Prionus heroicus, and I got my wish. Also got Prionus californicus and several other non-cerambycid beetles such as Chrysina beyeri, C. gloriosa, Lucanus mazama, and Parabyrsopolis chihuahuae (the latter a first for me). I also placed a prionic acid lure (thanks Steve!) and got three more male P. heroicus. We also hunted around the rocks and roadsides hoping to find Amblycheila baroni but didn’t find any. Art did, however, find a female P. californicus and gave it to me (thanks!).

Image may contain: 2 people, including Ted MacRae, people smiling, people standing and indoor

Meeting Pat Sullivan!

No photo description available.

Darkling beetles (family Tenebrionidae) such as this one come out at night to feed on decaying vegetation.

Image may contain: plant

Chrysina beyeri (family Scarabaeidae) is one of three species in the genus occurring in Ramsey Canyon.

Image may contain: outdoor and nature

Black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus), collected by Pat in Ramsey Canyon.

No photo description available.

Sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes lateropens), collected by Pat in Yuma County.

No photo description available.

“Sometimes the best collecting is inside!”


Day 6 – Vicinity Sonoita, Arizona
Unsuccessful attempt to collect Hippomelas martini, only recently described (Bellamy & Nelson, 1998) and part of the type series taken somewhere near this spot (“20 mi NE Patagonia, Hwy 82”) by “sweeping roadside vegetation”. At other locations it had been recorded on Calliandra sp., and I found patches of the plant here along and on top of the road cuts. This gives me confidence that I found the right spot, but I didn’t encounter this or any other beetles by sweeping the patches or visually inspecting them.

Image may contain: 1 person, plant, sky, flower, tree, outdoor and nature

Box Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
We decided to come back to Box Canyon since we’d had such good luck last time. I started at the spot above the dry falls where I collected so many Acmaeodera cazieri and A. yuccavora on flowers of Allionia incarnata. This time it was hotter, drier, and windier, and the flowers were semi-closed. Still I found a few of each. I then started walking down the road towards the lower canyon crossing where I would meet up with Art. Things were really hopping on the Mimosa dysocarpa, with Hippomelas planicauda abundant (finally collected my fill) and several other Buprestidae also beaten from the plants: Agrilus aeneocepahlus, Acmaeodera scalaris, Acmaeodera cazieri, Chrysobothris sp., and a species of Spectralia! (seven species of Buprestidae at one location I think is the high for the trip.) I checked other plants and flowers along the way down but didn’t find much.

Image may contain: mountain, sky, cloud, outdoor and nature

Halfway down from the “dry falls”.

Image may contain: sky, mountain, outdoor and nature

The “dry falls” about halfway up the canyon.

Image may contain: sky, outdoor and nature

Pseudovates arizonae – the aptly named Arizona unicorn mantis.

Lower Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
Madera Canyon is perhaps the most famous insect collecting locality in Arizona – maybe in the country, and it is hard to make a visit to Arizona without stopping by here. We elected to work the lower canyon first in an area where Chrysobothris chalcophoroides has been taken on Arizona oaks (Quercus arizonicus). Hiking towards the oaks I found some Stenaspis solitaria in a Baccharis sarothroides and marveled at the variety of other insects active on the plants (see photos) – later I would also collect an elaphidiine cerambycid on the plant. Next I started working the oaks, beating every branch I could reach with my net handle. With one whack of the stick a single Paratyndaris sp. and a single Brachys sp. landed on my sheet – those would be the only buprestids I would collect off the oaks! Other than that I collected one Hippomelas planicauda on Mimosa dysocarpa for the record. While I was working the oaks up in the knoll, the weather started turning with blustery winds, and I could see the rain coming in the distance. By the time I got down from the knoll the rain had arrived, and I walked back to the car in a sunny downpour using my beating sheet as an umbrella!

Image may contain: cloud, sky, mountain, grass, outdoor and nature

Madera Canyon in the Santa Rita Mountains.

Image may contain: plant, sky, flower, shoes, tree, outdoor and nature

Acanthocephala thomasi on Baccharis sarothroides.

Image may contain: plant, outdoor and nature

What appears to be a so-called “cricket killer” wasp (Chlorion aerarium) also feeds on sap on Baccharis sarothroides.

Image may contain: plant, sky, outdoor and nature

A longhorned beetle, probably in the genus Aneflus, rests on the foliage of Baccharis sarothroides.

Image may contain: cloud, sky, nature and outdoor

Rain headed my way!

Image may contain: cloud, sky, mountain, nature and outdoor

Rain passing into neighboring Florida Canyon.

Montosa Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
Just to try something different, we went to Montosa Canyon – the next canyon south of Madera Canyon – for tonight’s blacklighting. We set my sheet up just E of the crossing and Arts ground units back to the west along a gravel road on the south side of the crossing. Moths came in numbers, but the beetles were light – I collected only blister beetles (Epicauta sp.) and a Cymatodera sp. checkered beetle at the sheet, a series of tiger beetles and a female Strategus cessus at the second ground unit, and a male Strategus aloeus and two Stenelaphus alienus at the third ground unit.

Image may contain: sky, twilight, mountain, outdoor and nature

A gorgeous sunset to start the evening.

Image may contain: sky, twilight, night, outdoor and nature

A deepening dusk brings the promise of insects at the lights. 

Image may contain: plant, flower, outdoor and nature

A bee assassin bug, Apiomerus flaviventris.

Image may contain: plant and outdoor

An ocotillo, or calleta, silkmoth – Eupackardia calleta.

Image may contain: plant, outdoor and nature

One of the western riparian tiger beetles.


Day 7 (last day) – Vicinity Continental, Arizona
There was a photo posted on BugGuide of Stenaspis verticalis taken last week, so we decided to give it a shot and see if we could get lucky and find it ourselves. We checked all the Baccharis sarothroides within ½-mile if the spot but didn’t find it. I did, however, collect four Euphoria leucographa, two Chalcolepidius smaragdula, two Aneflus spp., and singletons of Stenaspis solitaria and Dendrobias mandibularis. I also took a couple of Hippomelas planicauda on Mimosa dysocarpa – just for the record!

Image may contain: sky, plant, tree and outdoor

Euphoria leucographa on Baccharis sarothroides.

Image may contain: plant, nature and outdoor

Chalcolepidius smaragdinus on Baccharis sarothroides.

Lower Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
We returned to work the lower canyon area. I’d heard that the tiger beetle Cicindelidia obsoleta santaclarae has been taken in the area last week so was hoping to run into it. While Art worked the east side of the road I worked the west, initially following FR-781 into what looked like grassland areas where the tiger beetle might occur. I didn’t see any but took Acmaeodera scalaris on Heterotheca sp. flowers and Acmaeodera solitaria on Argemone mexicana flowers. There was also a fresh wind-thrown mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) with a bunch of Chrysobothris octocola and one Chrysobothris rossi on it. Still the area looked abused from grazing and was uninteresting, so I looked for another area to explore.

Northwest of the parking lot I spotted another grassy area that was dotted with Baccharis sarothroides, so I decided to give that area a look. After clambering several times through barbed wire fence, I reached the area and began to give it a look. Still no tiger beetles, but every time I passed a B. sarothroides I inspected it closely. I’d looked at several plants when I came upon one with a Stenaspis solitaria sitting in the foliage, and when I looked down on one of the stems and saw a big male Tragidion sp. on the underside of the stem. After securing it, I looked closer at the plant and saw a pair of annulated antennae crawling up another stem – I knew right away it was a mating pair of Stenaspis verticalis! After carefully moving to the other side to confirm, I dared to take a few photos in situ (see below) and then secured the couple. Of course, this gave me newfound motivation to work the entire area to look for more. It was very hot by then, and I was already quite thirsty, but I summoned up all the stamina that I could and worked as many plants as I could, ending up with six Tragidion spp. and three Stenaspis verticalis. The latter was one of my top priority targets for this trips, and the only thing more satisfying than getting it is doing so on my last day on the field.

Image may contain: mountain, sky, cloud, outdoor and nature

View to south edge of Madera Canyon – Elephant Head is at the right.

Image may contain: outdoor

Chrysobothris octocola female ovipositing on freshly killed mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa).

Image may contain: plant, flower, outdoor and nature

Tragidion sp. mating pair on Baccharis sarothroides.

Image may contain: plant, outdoor and nature

Mating pair of Stenaspis verticalis on Baccharis sarothroides.

Image may contain: plant, sky, shoes and outdoor

Chalcolepidius lenzi at a sap flow on Baccharis sarothroides.

Image may contain: plant and outdoor

Lateral view of Chalcolepidius lenzi.

Image may contain: plant, flower, outdoor and nature

Barrel cactus in bloom.

Montosa Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
We  returned to Montosa Canyon and stopped at the Astronomy Vista partway up. It was hotter than bejeebuz! There was not an insect to be seen except giant cactus bugs and a single Euphoria leucographa that Art found on a sapping Baccharis sarothroides. Temp was 103°F even at this elevation!

Image may contain: cloud, mountain, sky, outdoor and nature

Stunning vista during the day! 

We needed to escape the heat, and I wanted to see oaks for one more crack at Mastogenius, so we drove up to the 13-km marker and I collected on the way back down to below the 12-km marker. Conditions were much more agreeable (temps in the 80s), and near the top there was a Ceanothus sp. bush in bloom, off which I collected Rhopalophora meeskei and Stenosphenus sp. – both genera represented by individuals with black versus red pronotum. Then I started beating the (Mexican blue, I believe) oaks, and right away I got a Mastogenius sp.! Kinda small, so I’m thinking not M. robusta and, thus, probably M. puncticollis (another species new to my collection). I also beat a largish Agrilus sp. that I don’t recognize, a few clerids, two R. meeskei, one Stenosphenus sp., and a couple of leaf beetles. There was also another type of oak there – Arizona white, I believe, which I beat as well but only got one clerid.

Image may contain: mountain, sky, cloud, tree, outdoor and nature

Spectacular views from 7000 ft!

Image may contain: plant, flower, nature and outdoor

A lichen moth on flowers of Ceanothus sp.

Image may contain: flower, plant, sky, tree, cloud, outdoor and nature

The biggest, fattest, bristliest tachinid fly I have ever seen!

Image may contain: mountain, sky, cloud, outdoor and nature

The spectacular vistas just keep on coming!

Image may contain: tree, sky, plant, cloud, outdoor and nature

An ancient alligator juniper stares down yet another sunset (perhaps its 50 thousandth!).

We stopped by the Astronomy Vista again on our way back down the canyon, and I found a pair of Moneilema gigas on cholla (Opuntia imbricata).

Image may contain: plant, sky, flower, nature and outdoor

Obligatory dusk shot of Moneilema gigas on Opuntia imbricata.

Image may contain: plant, outdoor and nature

Another individual on the same plant.

Image may contain: mountain, sky, twilight, nature and outdoor

Sunset over “Las Cuatro Hermanas”.

It was a fantastic seven days in the field with Arthur, and it was a great pleasure to (in some cases, finally) meet Margarethe, Barbara, Steven, Norm, and Pat. I appreciate the warmth, generosity, and hospitality that all of them displayed to me and look forward to our next encounter, hopefully in the near future.

© Ted C. MacRae 2019

“The Botanists Among Us: Host plant specialization in insects”

It’s been a busy week for me—just two days after doing a presentation on tiger beetles to the Webster Groves Nature Society’s Entomology Group, I gave a talk to the St. Louis Chapter of the Missouri Native Plant Society. As implied by the title, the talk focused on host plant specialization among insects, first covering the major groups of plant-feeding insects and the evolutionary themes involved in adaption to (and away from) plant-feeding, then moving to examples of different types of host plant specificity and highlighting some of the more interesting insects that I’ve encountered (and managed to photograph) over the years.

Like my talk two nights earlier, it was another fun and lighthearted conversation with a highly engaged crowd, and I appreciate the great interest shown by a group that is normally much more focused on plants than on insects. Once again, it was well-attended locally, but for the benefit of those who were not able to attend the meeting in person and that may be interested in this subject, I’ve prepared a PDF version* of the presentation that you can download and peruse at your convenience.

* All content is copyrighted and may not be reproduced or distributed without written consent.

© Ted C. MacRae 2019

A “superb” southwestern Missouri cicada

Back in the summer of 2015, I made an early August trip to the White River Hills region of extreme southwestern Missouri. I was actually looking for one of Missouri’s more uncommon cerambycid beetles – Prionus pocularis, associated with shortleaf pine in the mixed hardwood/pine forests across the southern part of the state. I did not encounter the beetle in either my prionic acid-baited pitfall traps or at the ultraviolet lights I had set up the evening before, but while I was in the area I thought I would visit one of my favorite places in the region – Drury-Mincy Conservation Area in Taney Co. Sitting right on the border with Arkansas, the rolling hills of this area feature high-quality dolomite glades and post oak savannas. I’ve had some excellent collecting here in the past and hoped I would find something of interest this time as well. I didn’t arrive until after midnight, and since there are no hotels in the area I just slept in the car.

Neotibicen superbus

Neotibicen superbus

The next morning temperatures began to rise quickly, and with it so did the cacophony of cicadas getting into high gear with their droning buzz calls. As I passed underneath one particular tree I noticed the song was coming from a branch very near my head. I like cicadas, but had it been the song of a “normal” cicada like Neotibicen lyricen (lyric cicada) or N. pruinosus (scissor grinder cicada) I would have paid it no mind. It was, instead, unfamiliar and distinctive, and when I searched the branches above me I recognized the beautiful insect responsible for the call as Neotibicen superbus (superb cicada), a southwest Missouri specialty—sumptuous lime-green above and bright white pruinose beneath. I had not seen this spectacular species since the mid 1980s (most of my visits to the area have been in the spring or the fall rather than high summer), and I managed to catch it and take a quick iPhone photograph for documentation. A species this beautiful, however, deserves ‘real’ photos, so I spent the next couple of hours attempting to photograph an individual in situ with the big camera. Of course, this is much, much easier said than done, especially with this species—their bulging eyes give them exceptional vision, and they are very skittish and quick to take flight. Most of the individuals that I located were too high up in the canopy to allow a shot, and each individual that was low enough for me to approach ended up fluttering off with a screech before I could even compose a shot, much less press the shutter. Persistence paid, however, and I eventually managed to approach and photograph an unusually calm female resting – quite conveniently – at chest height on the trunk of a persimmon tree.

Sanborn-Phillips_2013_Fig-16

Source: Sanborn & Phillips (2013).

According to Sanborn & Phillips (2013, Figure 16 – reproduced above), Neotibicen superbus, is found in trees within grassland environments primarily in eastern Texas and Oklahoma, although records of it exist from each of the surrounding states – especially southern Missouri and northern Arkansas (Figure 16 below, Sanborn & Phillips 2013). Later the same day I would see the species abundantly again in another of the region’s dolomite glades – this one in Roaring River State Park further west in Barry Co., suggesting that dolomite glades are the preferred habitat in this part of its range. Interestingly, I think the Missouri records at least must be relatively recent, as Froeschner (1952) did not include the species in his synopsis of Missouri cicadas. This was all the information I had back in the 1980s when I first encountered the species in southwestern Missouri, its apparent unrecorded status in the state making it an even more exciting find at the time.

Neotibicen superbus

Neotibicen superbus

REFERENCES:

Froeschner, R. C.  1952. A synopsis of the Cicadidae of Missouri. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 60:1–14 [pdf].

Sanborn, A. F. & P. K. Phillips. 2013. Biogeography of the cicadas (Hemiptera: Cicadidae) of North America, north of Mexico. Diversity 5(2):166–239 [abstractpdf].

© Ted C. MacRae 2018

Ellipsoptera lepida – ghost tiger beetle

In the early 2000s, Chris Brown and I were beginning our general survey of Missouri tiger beetles. Our goal was to characterize the occurrence and distribution of all species within the state. At the time, 22 species were known to occur in Missouri, and our work would uncover the presence of two more—one being a vagrant occurrence of the widespread Cicindelidia trifasciata ascendens (ascendent tiger beetle) (Brown & MacRae 2005); the other being the rare Cylindera celeripes (swift tiger beetle) (MacRae & Brown 2011). Of the species already known from the state, however, some were known from only a few records and hadn’t been seen in the field by either Chris or myself. One such species was Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle), an almost pure white species known to occur in deep, dry sand habitats over most of central North America (Pearson et al. 2015). At that time, I had still seen only the more common species in Missouri, and the combination of its name and unusual, mostly-white color put this species high on my “must see” list.

Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle)

My first experience would come quickly. In June 2001, Chris and I visited a recent addition to Weldon Spring Conservation Area on the north side of the Missouri River in St. Charles Co. called Darst Bottoms. The area at one time was productive farmland, but the “Great Floods” of 1993 and 1995 left deep deposits of sand over the area. While no longer suitable for agriculture, the process of succession allowed valuable wildlife habitat to develop, and the area was purchased and added to the Conservation Area. By the time of our visit in 2001, early succession had resulted in young forests of mostly eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides) surrounding a vast central plain of white sand. Chris and I didn’t know what to expect on that first visit, both of us being in the early stages of our survey of Missouri tiger beetles, but we figured we would find something interesting.

Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle)

I still remember the moment I first saw E. lepida and realized what it was. We had already found Cicindela formosa generosa (eastern big sand tiger beetle)—the first time I had seen that species in Missouri outside the southeastern lowlands (we would eventually find it at many sites along the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers and a few smaller interior rivers)—and were searching for additional specimens. We were in a small opening adjacent to the larger central plain when I thought I saw something move near my feet. I stopped to look down but didn’t see anything, so I began walking again while scanning the ground ahead of me. Again, I thought I saw movement nearby and stopped to look, this time pausing a little longer and doing so a little more carefully. That’s when I saw it, and even though I had seen only photographs of the species and museum specimens I recognized it instantly for what it was and yelled out “lepida!” Chris came over to see for himself, and we marveled at the effectiveness of their camouflage—they seemingly were able to disappear right before our eyes even though we were looking right at them.

Sand plain habitat for Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle).

Over the next few years, Chris and I found the species at several sites along or not too distant from the Missouri and Mississippi Rivers—always on sand deposits deep enough to become dry. We never found them in great numbers, sometimes just single individuals while other sand residents were abundant, and not at all sites where we did find more reliable species such as C. f. generosa and C. tranquebarica (oblique-lined tiger beetle). Pearson et al. (2015) mention that despite the broad distribution of this species across central North America that its actual occurrence is rather spotty and localized and that it has disappeared from many sites where it was previously known to occur. This was our experience in Missouri as well, as many of the museum records we had gleaned for the species no longer appeared to support populations of the beetle. This is likely due, at least in part, to the ephemeral nature of the habitats on which the species depends, at least those along the big rivers that are vulnerable to revegetation and succession back to bottomland forest.

Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle)

Of course, all of this occurred long before I took up insect macrophotography in 2009, and while I had managed to photograph most of the tiger beetle species in Missouri in the years that followed, E. lepida was one that I continued to lack. In the summer of 2015 I decided to rectify that situation and, when the time was right, returned to Darst Bottoms in hopes of finding and photographing this species. Imagine my surprise when I hiked into the area and, instead of young cottonwood stands surrounding a vast, barren sand plain, I found mature cottonwood forests surrounding a thickly vegetated sand prairie with only isolated patches of barren sand. Needless to say, with such little suitable habitat for the beetles they were neither abundant nor even common. In fact, the only evidence I found that told me they were still there at all was coyote scat containing unmistakable remains of the adult beetles. Skunked on my first effort, I decided to try another spot where we had seen good populations of the beetle—Overton Bottoms Conservation Area along the Missouri River in Cooper and Monteau Counties in central Missouri, now Overton Bottoms South Unit and part of the Big Muddy National Wildlife Area. Like Darst Bottoms, this area had experienced revegetation and succession in the decade+ since my previous visit; however, unlike the former there still remained a vast central plain that, while vegetated, was sparsely vegetated enough to continue providing suitable habitat for the beetle. It took some work, but I eventually found the beetles localized in one part of the sand plain (see photograph #3), and there were enough of them out at the time of my visit that I succeeded in getting the series of photographs shown in this post.

Ellipsoptera lepida (ghost tiger beetle)

I have fond memories of all 24 tiger beetle species in Missouri—each one presenting a unique collection of experiences that will fuel my love affair with the group for years to come. With E. lepida, the jubilance and excitement of that first, unexpected encounter remains near the top of the list for me.

REFERENCES:

Brown, C. R. & T. C. MacRae. 2005. Occurrence of Cicindela (Cicindelidia) trifasciata ascendens (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) in Missouri. Cicindela 37(1–2):17–19 [pdf].

MacRae, T. C. & C. R. Brown. 2011. Historical and contemporary occurrence of Cylindera (s. str.) celeripes (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Carabidae: Cicindelinae) and implications for its conservation. The Coleopterists Bulletin 65(3):230–241 [pdf].

Pearson, D. L., C. B. Knisley, D. P. Duran & C. J. Kazilek. 2015. A Field Guide to the Tiger Beetles of the United States and Canada. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, New York, 264 pp. [Oxford description].

© Ted C. MacRae 2017

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis (chartreuse tiger beetle)

In previous posts I have discussed some Texas subspecies of Cicindela scutellaris (festive tiger beetle) and C. formosa (big sand tiger beetle)—two widespread and geographically variable species that occur broadly across eastern North America and that segregate into several distinctive and geographically restricted subspecies (Pearson et al. 2006). With the former species, I actually found two of its Texas subspecies, the second being C. s. flavoviridis (dubbed the “chartreuse tiger beetle” by Erwin & Pearson, 2008). This subspecies occurs in a narrow band from north-central Texas south to central Texas and apparently does not intergrade with rugata (which I featured previously) to the east (Pearson et al. 2006) and minimally with subspecies lecontei to the north (Vaurie 1950).

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

This beautiful subspecies usually lacks maculations, at most possessing two tiny ivory white spots along the outer edge of the elytra, and the shining metallic upper body surface is the most stunning shade of greenish-yellow, or chartreuse, color that I have ever seen. It shares with C. s. rugata a more wrinkled pronotum and smoother head than other C. scutellaris subspecies, but the latter is distinguished by its darker blue to blue-green dorsal coloration. Vaurie (1950) regarded C. s. flavoviridis to be intermediate between rugata and scutellaris but more closely related to the latter due to their shared yellow/coppery reflections on the elytra. Cicindela s. flavoviridis can also be confused with immaculate forms of C. sexguttata (six-spotted tiger beetle), but the latter is less robust with a more tapered posterior, and both sexes of C. sexguttata have a whitish labrum—in all C. scutellaris subspecies only males have a white labrum and females have a dark/black labrum.

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

Like all of the other C. scutellaris subspecies, this one occurs in deep, dry sand habitats such as dunes, blowouts, and road cuts. I found this population along a tributary of the Red River known as Cobb Hollow” in Montegue Co., Texas in early October 2015, where they occurred in small numbers on deep sand bars alongside the small creek. I actually made two visits to this site one week apart—failing the first time in my efforts to obtain good, in situ field photographs but succeeding on the second visit.

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis

I am quite satisfied with these photos, especially the first one above that gives a good lateral view of an adult striking an interesting pose on sloped sand, although I would have liked to have gotten at least one with some foliage in the photo to add a bit of perspective. Nevertheless, having now succeed in photographing the four “western” subspecies of C. scutellaris (rugata and flavoviridis in Texas, nominate scutellaris in the Great Plains, and yampae in northwestern Colorado), I am now motivated to get good photographs of the three “eastern” subspecies: lecontei proper (there are populations in northern Missouri), rugifrons along the North Atlantic coast, and unicolor in the southeastern U.S. (although I have photographed an interesting lecontei × unicolor intergrade population in southern Missouri).

REFERENCES:

Erwin, T. L. & D. L. Pearson. 2008. A Treatise on the Western Hemisphere Caraboidea (Coleoptera). Their classification, distributions, and ways of life. Volume II (Carabidae-Nebriiformes 2-Cicindelitae). Pensoft Series Faunistica 84. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, 400 pp [Amazon descriptionbook review].

Pearson, D. L., C. B. Knisley & C. J. Kazilek. 2006. A Field Guide to the Tiger Beetles of the United States and Canada. Oxford University Press, New York, 227 pp. [Oxford description].

Vaurie, P. 1950. Four new subspecies of the genus Cicindela (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae). American Museum Novitates 1458:1–6 [AMNH Digital Library pdf].

© Ted C. MacRae 2017

Cicindela scutellaris rugata (the “wrinkled tiger beetle”)

During last year’s Fall Tiger Beetle Collecting Trip, I visited several rural cemeteries in northeastern Texas. No, this was not a diversion from my beetle collecting—cemeteries in rural areas can be great places to look for tiger beetles because they tend to be lightly managed parcels of land of low agricultural value, thus retaining to some degree the character of the original landscape. In this case, the cemeteries I visited were located in the northern part of Texas’ Post Oak Savannah, a transitional ecoregion with uplands characterized by deep sandy soils supporting native bunchgrasses and scattered post oaks. It is the open, sandy areas in this region where distinctive subspecific populations of two more broadly distributed tiger beetles can be found—Cicindela scutellaris rugata and Cicindela formosa pigmentosignata. One location where I looked for them was an old cemetery in Henderson County. Within minutes of stepping out of the car, I found the first subspecies—unmistakable by its solid shiny blue coloration.

Cicindela scutellaris rugata

Cicindela scutellaris rugata Vaurie, 1950—Henderson Co., Texas

Cicindela scutellaris rugata, dubbed the “wrinkled tiger beetle” by Erwin & Pearson (2008), is one of seven recognized subspecies of this widely distributed species that shows greater geographical variation than any other species of tiger beetle in North America (Pearson et al. 2006). Across its range the species is found in deep, dry sand habitats that are fully exposed to the sun and lack any standing water. Except in the far southeastern U.S., this species is often found in association with C. formosa (although in Missouri I have noted that C. scutellaris occurs slightly earlier in the spring and slightly later in the fall—perhaps at least in part to avoid direct competition with and possibly even predation by that larger species).

Cicindela scutellaris rugata

The “wrinkled tiger beetle” exhibits solid blue to blue-green coloration with no maculations.

This subspecies is similar in appearance to C. s. unicolor, distributed across the southeastern U.S. and separated from C. s. rugata by the Mississippi River floodplain—both are shiny blue to blue-green in coloration and exhibit no maculations on the elytra. However, C. s. rugata has a more wrinkled pronotum (hence, the subspecific epithet) and smoother head, while C. s. unicolor has a smoother pronotum and more wrinkled head. Another subspecies, C. s. flavoviridis, shares this surface sculpturing but differs in having the elytra colored lighter yellow-green—in this sense C. s. rugata can be considered intermediate between C. s. unicolor to the east and C. s. flavoviridis to the west (Vaurie 1950). Cicindela s. rugata can also be confused with immaculate forms of C. sexguttata (six-spotted tiger beetle), but the latter is less robust with a more tapered posterior, and both sexes of C. sexguttata have a whitish labrum (in all subspecies of C. scutellaris only males have a white labrum, while females have a dark to black labrum).

Cicindela scutellaris rugata

The more wrinkled pronotum and smoother head distinguishes C. s. rugata from C. s. unicolor.

As I have noted for other C. scutellaris subspecies that I have encountered (nominate as well as C. s. leconteiC. s. yampae, and Missouri’s intergrade population of C. s. unicolorC. s. lecontei), adults were fairly abundant during the late morning hours but largely disappeared during the afternoon, probably having dug into their burrows to escape the midday heat (although I did not search for the burrows and dig them out as I have done for the other mentioned subspecies). I did see a very few individuals at another sandy cemetery in neighboring Van Zandt Co. that I visited later in the afternoon (and at both locations I found the stunning C. formosa pigmentosignata—that will be the subject of another post).

REFERENCES:

Erwin, T. L. & D. L. Pearson. 2008. A Treatise on the Western Hemisphere Caraboidea (Coleoptera). Their classification, distributions, and ways of life. Volume II (Carabidae-Nebriiformes 2-Cicindelitae). Pensoft Series Faunistica 84. Pensoft Publishers, Sofia, 400 pp [Amazon descriptionbook review].

Pearson, D. L., C. B. Knisley & C. J. Kazilek. 2006. A Field Guide to the Tiger Beetles of the United States and Canada. Oxford University Press, New York, 227 pp. [Oxford description].

Vaurie, P. 1950. Four new subspecies of the genus Cicindela (Coleoptera, Cicindelidae). American Museum Novitates 1458:1–6 [AMNH Digital Library pdf].

© Ted C. MacRae 2016

The “black bringer of light”

During last year’s Fall Tiger Beetle Collecting Trip, I spent a day visiting cemeteries in the Post Oak Savannah region of northeastern Texas to look for tiger beetles associated with open sand in and around the cemeteries. It had been a good day, and I thought I would try to squeeze in one more visit to a locality I had visited earlier in the day. By the time I arrived at Sand Flat Cemetery in Henderson Co., however, it was almost 6 p.m.—the sun was still up, but the shadows were long and no tiger beetles were found. Not all insects, however, are so quick to turn in as tiger beetles, so I lingered for awhile and eventually found an area where several large bee flies (family Bombyliidae) were seen flying and briefly perching on the ground or the tips of plains snakecotton (Froelichia floridana). Since this was the last stop of the day and there were no tiger beetles to demand my attention, I spent a fair bit of time trying to photograph these very skittish flies and ended up with photos of two different individuals that I was happy with.

Poecilanthrax lucifer

Poecilanthrax lucifer (Fabricius, 1775)—Sand Flat Cemetery, Henderson Co., Texas

Alex Harman was the first to suggest they might represent the species Poecilanthrax lucifer based on a quick iPhone photo that I posted on Facebook, a hunch that was eventually confirmed by Bishop Museum dipterist Neil Evenhuis based on these photos sent to him by e-mail. Poecilanthrax  is a strictly North American (sensu lato) genus that, at the time of its last revision by Painter & Hall (1960), contained 35 species. Although distributed from Canada south through Central America, the greatest abundance of species and individuals is found in the Great Basin region, and, so far as is known, the larvae develop as parasites inside caterpillars of various cutworms and armyworms (family Noctuidae).

Poecilanthrax lucifer

Adults were found perching on the flowers of plains snakecotton (Froelichia floridana)

Poecilanthrax lucifer is one of the more widely distributed species in the genus, occurring predominantly in the West Indies and southern Gulf States but also ranging south into Central America and north into Arkansas and southern Illinois. It is distinguished from other species in the genus by its conspicuous black and yellow tomentose (densely covered with short matted woolly hairs) crossbands on the abdomen and the bases of the larger veins yellow or tan and contrasting with the remainder of the wing color pattern.

Poecilanthrax lucifer

Black and yellow tomentose abdominal bands and yellow/tan larger wing veins distinguish this species.

Like other species in the genus, P. lucifer is known to parasitize noctuid caterpillars, having been reared from fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and exhibiting parasitism rates of up to 25%. This species is unique in the genus, however, in that it has also been reported as a hyperparasite (parasite of a parasite) of Myzine haemorrhoidalis (family Tiphiidae), a primary parasite of white grubs (genus Phyllophaga) in Puerto Rico. The life histories of many species in the genus remain unknown, however, so perhaps other species in the genus will eventually be found to act as hyperparasites as well. All species of Poecilanthrax appear to be univoltine (one generation per year) in natural habitats; however, P. lucifer and a few others that frequent agricultural areas have been found to become facultatively bivoltine or multivoltine due to the extended seasonal availability of pest caterpillars that often occur in these situations.

Poecilanthrax lucifer

“Satanic deadly disease” or “black bringer of light”?

The scientific name of Poecilanthrax lucifer is perhaps one of the more ominous sounding names I’ve encountered. “Anthrax” is, of course, commonly associated with the often deadly infectious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, while “lucifer” is none other than Satan himself! However, I suspect that the name of the genus refers not to the disease, but rather its original Greek meaning of “charcoal” in reference to the often black color of the adult flies. Likewise, the original Latin meaning of the word “Lucifer” is “morning star” or “Venus” when used as a noun and “light-bringing” when used as an adjective—only after a series of corruptions through repeated transcriptions and translations of the Bible did it become a name synonymous with the Devil. Thus, a name that could be interpreted as “Satanic deadly disease” might actually mean the “black bringer of light”.

REFERENCE:

Painter, R. H. & J. C. Hall. 1960. A monograph of the genus Poecilanthrax (Diptera: Bombyliidae). Kansas State University of Agriculture and Applied Science, Agricultural Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin 106, 132 pp. [HathiTrust pdf].

© Ted C. MacRae 2016

Fun with eucraniines!

During my February/March 2015 visit to Argentina, I had the opportunity to travel to west-central provinces of San Juan and San Luis with Federico Ocampo for a weekend of insect collecting. Up to that point most of my collecting in Argentina had been limited to the northeastern provinces (Chaco, Corrientes, and Misiones), so I was excited for the chance to explore a radically different biome. West-central Argentina represents a transition zone from the flat, wet, treeless plains of the Humid Pampas in east-central Argentina (Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, and Córdoba Provinces) to the massive Andes Mountains running along the western edge of South America. This area is home to the Monte, a desert biome characterized by volcanic sediments, piedmont plains, large mountain blocks and dry salt lakes. Conditions in the Monte are generally more hospitable than in the neighboring Atacama and Patagonian Deserts lying north and south of the Monte, respectively. As a result, the flora and fauna in the Monte is relatively rich and characterized by a diversity of shrubs, grasses, and cacti.

Dunas de Encón

Encón Dunes, San Luis Province, Argentina

Of the several sites we visited in the area, the most remarkable was “Las Dunas de Encón” (the Encón Sand Dunes) in San Luis Province. Belonging to a larger system covering some 250,000 hectares—the largest in South America (and, thus, sometimes called the “Argentinian Sahara”)—the dunes are thought to have formed some 100–200K years ago as a result of dry conditions brought on by Quaternary glaciations. I find sand dune systems endlessly fascinating due to their unique and often endemic plants and animals and have visited many systems in North America (Bruneau, Coral PinkGlamisGreat, Medora, St. Anthony, and others), but this was the first sand dune system I’ve had the opportunity to see outside of the U.S. Federico, a scarab specialist, shares that fascination and has, in fact, described a number of species in the scarabaeine tribe Eucraniini—endemic to South America—that utilize these very sand dunes (Ocampo 2005, 2007, 2010). He was hoping one or more of them might be out and about; I was hoping to see anything, really.

Host for Lampetis spp.

Parkinsonia praecox? – adult host plant for Lampetis baeri and L. corinthia.

One of the first plants that caught my attention was a woody, fabaceous shrub that looked very much like what I would have previously called Cercidium, now Parkinsonia, and which after a bit of digging I conclude is likely Parkinsonia praecox. Woody, fabaceous shrubs in desert habitats are a sure bet to host jewel beetles, so I began paying special attention to each shrub as I wandered by. It wasn’t long before I saw a large, brilliant metallic green jewel beetle sitting on an outer branch of one of the shrubs—it was one of the most beautiful jewel beetles I have ever seen out in the field with my own eyes! I managed to catch it, and over the next few hours I collected not only several more of this species but also several individuals of an even larger, more somber-colored species. I was able to identify them as Lampetis baeri (Kerremans, 1910) and L. corinthia (Fairmaire, 1864), respectively, when I compared them to material in the collections at Fundacion Miguel Lillo, Instituto de Entomologia, Tucuman, Argentina [IFML]) during my visit there the following week (see photos below).

Lampetis baeri (Kerremans, 1910)

Lampetis baeri (Kerremans, 1910) [IFML]

Lampetis corinthia (Fairmaire, 1864)

Lampetis corinthia (Fairmaire, 1864) [IFML]

As a jewel beetle enthusiast, you would think that was the highlight of my day. In fact, the fun had only started. For a time after our arrival, Federico pointed out burrows likely made by eucraniine adults, but we didn’t see any evidence of activity at first. It wasn’t long, however, before we found the first adult—a fine Eucranium beleni Ocampo, 2010, the largest of the three species occurring at this site (about the size of our North American Deltochilum). One of the more obvious features of eucraniines is their enormously enlarged forelegs and pronotum to hold the musculature required to carry—that’s right, carry!—provisions to the larval burrow (in contrast with the more commonly seen habit among members of the subfamily of using the hind legs to push provisions to the burrow). This unusual morphology gives these beetles not only an amusing, shuffling gait but also a rather comical method for turning themselves upright (as seen in this video narrated by Federico). There are other dung beetles that pull, rather than push, larval provisions (e.g., Sisyphus spp., which stand on highly elongate hind legs and walk backwards while pulling the dungball), but eucraniines seem to be the only ones that actually lift provisions off the ground to carry them. In the case of E. beleni, this involves carrying pieces of dung with the forelegs held out in front of the head while walking forward on the middle and hind legs (Ocampo 2010). I didn’t get to see that behavior with E. beleni, but I did see it with one of another of the eucraniines we found that day (see below). In the E. beleni photo below, note the brushy middle and hind tarsi—an adaptation for walking on loose sand.

Eucranium belenae

Eucranium belenae Ocampo, 2010 walks on its middle/hind legs while holding its forelegs aloft.

Eucranium belenae burrow

Eucranium belenae burrow plugged with a piece of dung.

The second species in the group that we encountered was Anomiopsoides cavifrons (Burmeister, 1861). This species is much smaller than E. beleni (about the size of a large Onthophagus), and unlike E. beleni—and, in fact, most other dung beetles—the larvae of A. cavifrons develop on plant matter rather than dung. Both males and females provision the larval burrows with pieces of plant debris that they pick up with their front legs and carry back to the burrow while walking on their other four legs. This rather amusing video shows a male bringing a piece of debris back to his burrow, then exiting to find and retrieve another piece of debris to bring back to the burrow. The molar region of their mandibles is heavily sclerotized for masticating the plant fibers in preparation for the larvae. There are a couple of other species in the tribe that opportunistically include plant matter in their diet, but A. cavifons seems to be the only one known to utilize dry plant matter in desert habitats almost exclusively (Ocampo 2005). Anomiopsoides cavifrons was far more abundant in the dunes than E. beleni, and by early to mid-afternoon they were encountered with such regularity that I stopped even looking at them.

Anomiopsoides cavifrons male at burrow

Anomiopsoides cavifrons (Burmeister, 1861) male at burrow entrance.

We also were fortunate to see a few individuals of the third species known from these dunes, Anomiopsoides fedemariai Ocampo, 2007. This species is intermediate in size between the extremes represented by E. beleni and A. cavifrons and utilizes pellets of the plains viscacha (Lagostomus maximus), a species of rodent in the family Chinchillidae, for food (Ocampo 2007).

REFERENCE:

Ocampo, F. C. 2005. Revision of the southern South American endemic genus Anomiopsoides Blackwelder, 1944 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Eucraniini) and description of its food relocation behavior. Journal of Natural History 39(27):2537–2557 [pdf via DigitalCommons].

Ocampo, F. C. 2007. The Argentinean dung beetle genus Anomiopsoides (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Eucraniini): description of a new species, and new synonymies for A. heteroclytaRevista Sociedad Entomología Argentina 66(3–4):159–168 [pdf via SciELO Argentina].

Ocampo, F. C. 2010. A revision of the Argentinean endemic genus Eucranium Brullé (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) with description of one new species and new synonymies. Journal of Insect Science 10:205, available online: insectscience.org/10.205 [pdf via DigitalCommons].

© Ted C. MacRae 2016