T.G.I.Flyday—Black horse fly (Tabanus atratus)

In my previous post, I talked about a day trip to a sand scrub remnant in the Lake Wales Ridge of central Florida to find and photograph the endemic Highlands tiger beetle (Cicindelidia highlandensis). Ironically, the dry sand scrub/pine woodland habitats along this ridge are dotted with small lakes and ponds, allowing a rich aquatic flora and fauna to co-exist alongside the xeric specialists. Field mate Chris Brown and I had found and just finished photographing the tiger beetles when we encountered this rather largish lake—bright, white sand surrounding crisp, clear water reflecting white, puffy clouds in a deep, blue sky. ‘Twas a spectacular sight, indeed!

Sand scrub lake

Sand scrub remnant, Lake Wales Ridge, central Florida

As we stood looking at the scenery, I noticed something black on the stem of one of the sedges growing along the water’s edge. Something big and black! As I moved closer I could tell quickly that it was a large horse fly, but it was not simply perched and resting on the sedge—there was something else going on. Moving closer, ever so cautiously so as not to disturb the fly, I eventually realized that it was a female in the act of oviposition. How cool—I’d never witnessed this before with any species of horse fly, so to see it with such a large species was a real treat. I recognized it instantly as Tabanus atratus—commonly called the black horse fly and recognizable as such by its large size, all-black coloration, and distinctively hooked antennae (see 3rd photo below).

Tabanus atratus ovipositing

A Tabanus atratus female oviposits on a stem overhanging the water.

Before we get to the eggs, let’s dispel some misinformation that seems to persist regarding the size of this species (as it does with almost any large insect). Black horse flies are undeniably large, and in fact they are one of the largest horse flies in North America. The more credible sources (e.g., Pechuman et al. 1983, Long 2001) cite body length as ranging from 20–25 mm (up to a full inch in length). Incredibly, the species does not take the honors as North America’s largest horse fly, which goes instead to Tabanus americanus and it’s upper limit of 30 mm (in fact, T. americanus may be the world’s largest horse fly)! There are, however, on-line sources and a few popular field guides (as cited in BugGuide) that state a maximum length of 28 mm for T. atratus. How credible this figure is I cannot say, but I guarantee that the size indications of 30, 40, and even a whopping 50 mm in length found routinely among photos of this species on BugGuide were not derived from careful measurement and almost certainly instead reflect the astonished reactions that such an abnormally large insect can generate! In fact, there are precious few insects in North America that reach lengths as grand as 50 mm (i.e., two full inches)!

Tabanus atratus ovipositing

Lateral view of oviposition.

We approached carefully, again so as not to disturb the female in the middle of her act, and we watched and photographed as she laid the individual eggs one by one, using the tip of her abdomen to carefully arrange them neatly against each other in stacked layers. From a photographic perspective, balancing flash exposure of the all-black adult with the bright-white egg mass presented a real challenge. Added to that was an additional exposure challenge (my desire for a blue-sky background), making it a truly difficult-to-photograph subject. Long (2001) states that T. atratus egg masses can contain anywhere from one hundred to a thousand eggs each, always near water’s edge or somewhere quite close to water. Females are capable of laying three or four of these egg masses, which apparently gradually turn dark as the eggs develop and approach hatch.

Tabanus atratus egg mass

Freshly laid Tabanus atratus egg mass.

Despite this being the first time I’ve ever witnessed oviposition by this species, it seems to be encountered regularly. There are several photos of ovipositing females among the many photos of this species that have been posted to BugGuide. Moreover, descriptions of the egg mass of T. atatus appeared very early in the literature, first by Hart (1895) and then in photographs by Schwardt (1936). The latter author also states “T. atatus deposits its eggs in masses which are so constant in structural plan as to make specific determination of the egg mass readily possible” (as quoted in Bailey 1948). Thus, even if this female had already finished and left her egg mass, it still could have been identified to species.

REFERENCES:

Bailey, N. S. 1948. Notes on Tabanus atratus subsp. nantuckensis Hine (Diptera). Psyche 55(3):131–138 [pdf].

Hart, C. A. 1895. On the entomology of the Illinois River and adjacent water. Illinois State Laboratory of Natural History Bulletin 4:149–273 [eBook].

Jones, C. M. & D. W. Anthony. 1964. The Tabanidae (Diptera) of Florida. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Technical Bulletin No. 1295, 85 pp. [pdf].

Long, W. 2001. Tabanus atratus (on-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed 20 March 2019 at https://animaldiversity.org/accounts/Tabanus_atratus/

Pechuman, L. L., D. W. Webb & H. J. Teskey. 1983. The Diptera, or true flies, of Illinois 1. Tabanidae. Illinois Natural History Survey Bulletin 33(1):1–121 [pdf].

Schwardt, H. I. 1936. Horseflies of Arkansas. Arkansas Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 332:14–15, 27–32.

© Ted C. MacRae 2019

 

2018 Arizona Insect Collecting Trip “iReport”

Hot on the heels of the previous installment in this series, I present the sixth “Collecting Trip iReport”; this one covering a trip to Arizona during July/August 2018 with Art Evans and—like the previous installments in this series—illustrated exclusively with iPhone photographs (see previous installments for 2013 Oklahoma2013 Great Basin2014 Great Plains, 2015 Texas, and 2018 New Mexico/Texas).

This trip was a reunion of sorts—not only had it been 20 years since I’d collected in Arizona, it had also been 20 years since I’d spent time in the field with Art Evans—which just happened to be in southeast Arizona! For years I looked forward to our next opportunity, and when he told me of his plans for an extended trip to take photographs of his forthcoming Beetles of the Western United States, I couldn’t pass up the chance. Art had already been out west for five weeks by the time I landed in Phoenix on July 28th, and together we drove to Cave Creek Canyon in the Chiricahua Mountains and spent the night before beginning a 7-day adventure in and around the “Sky Islands” of southeastern Arizona.

As with the recent New Mexico/Texas post, the material collected still has not been completely processed and curated, so I don’t have final numbers of taxa collected, but there were a number of species—some highly desirable—that I managed to find and collect for the first time, e.g., the buprestids Acmaeodera yuccavoraAgrilus restrictus, Agr. arizonicusChrysobothris chiricauhuaMastogenius puncticollis, and Lampetis webbii and the cerambycids Tetraopes discoideus and Stenaspis verticalis. Who knows what as-yet-unrecognized goodies await my discovery in the still unprocessed material?!


Day 1 – Chiricahua Mountains, Cave Creek Canyon
After arriving at Cave Creek Ranch late last night, we awoke to some stunning views right outside our room!

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View of Cave Creek Canyon at Cave Creek Ranch, Chiricahua Mountains.

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Cave Creek Ranch, Cave Creek Canyon, Chiricahua Mountains.

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Cave Creek Ranch, Cave Creek Canyon, Chiricahua Mountains.

The first buprestid of the trip was a series of Pachyschelus secedens on Desmodium near Stewart Campground. We beat the oaks and acacia along the way to Sunny Flat Campground but didn’t find much. Once we got near Sunny Flat I did some sweeping in an area with new growth of Helianthus sp. and got a series of Agrilus huachucae, a few lycids, and one Leptinotarsa rubiginosa. I beat one Acmaeodera cazieri from Acacia greggii and found another on flower of prickly poppy (Argemone sp.). On the roadside at Sunny Flat I found several Acmaeodera spp. on a yellow-flowered composite – one A. rubronotata, one A. solitaria(?), and three A. cazieri. Also collected one A. cazieri on a rain gauge, Mecas rotundicollis and one as yet undetermined acanthocinine cerambycid on miscellaneous foliage, one tiger beetle (Cicindela sedecimpunctata?) on the roadside, and two orange lycids in flight.

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Majestic peaks loom over the canyon.

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Blue pleasing fungus beetle (Gibbifer californicus) – family Erotylidae.

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Me with Margarethe Brummermann.

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Reddish potato beetle (Leptinotarsa rubiginosa) is an uncommon relative of the much more well known (and despised) Colorado potato beetle (L. decemlineata).

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Margarethe Brummermann searches for beetles in Sunny Flat Campground.

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Bordered patch (Chlosyne lacinia) – family Nymphalidae.

Desert flats east of Portal, Arizona
We came to this spot to look for Sphaerobothris ulkei on joint-fir (Ephedra trifurca), but after not finding any for awhile I got distracted by some big buprestids flying around. Caught several Hippomelas sphenicus, one Gyascutus caelatus, and two Acmaeodera gibbula on Acacia rigida, and the first and third were also on Prosopis glandulosa along with Plionoma suturalis. We finally found S. ulkei – searched the area for almost three hours, and Art and I each caught two and Margarethe caught one – also one each of P. suturalis and A. gibbula. I also got a mating pair of A. gibbula on Acacia greggii. After dinner, we went back and placed an ultraviolet light – checked it a couple hours later and got a nice series of Cylindera lemniscata and a few meloids (for Jeff).

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Desert flats below Portal, Arizona – dominant woody vegetation is mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), sweet acacia (Acacia rigida), and three-pronged joint-fir (Ephedra trifurca).

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Art Evans photographing Hippomelas planicauda in the ‘studio’ afterwards.

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Sphaerobothris ulkei, collected on Ephedra trifurca.

Day 1 of the trip ended in typical monsoon fashion – heavy, thunderous rainstorms moved into the area during late afternoon, dimming prospects for blacklighting. Still, we set them up anyway at several spots and checked them later in the evening (flood waters preventing us from going to all the spots we wanted to). Not surprisingly, the one trap that yielded interesting specimens was in the lowest (warmest) area and received the least amount of rain. For me it was a nice series of Cylindera lemniscata.

IMG_3133 (Edited)

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Day 2 – Southwestern Research Station, Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona
There is a large stand of a narrow-leaved milkweed (Asclepias sp.) at the station, so we stopped by in our way up the mountain to check it for beetles. Got a nice little series of Tetraopes discoideus (tiny little guys!) on the stems as well as a few Rhopalophora meeskei, two Lycus spp., and one Pelonides humeralis on the flowers.

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Tetraopes discoideus (family Cerambycidae).

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Rhopalophora meeskei and Lycus sp. on Asclepias sp.

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At the Southwestern Research Station with Barbara Roth, Art Evans, and Margarethe Brummermann.

Road from Southwestern Research Station to Ruster Park
After leaving the SWRS on our way up to Rustler Park, we stopped to check a couple of bushes of New Mexico raspberry (Rubus neomexicanus). Margarethe thought there might be lepturines on the flowers, but instead we found a few Acmaeodera spp. and some Rhopalophora meeskei.

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New Mexico raspberry (Rubus neomexicanus).

Further up the road we made another quick stop to check roadside flowers – just a single A. rubronotata on a yellow-flowered composite, but spectacular views of the valley below.

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Looking west from the Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona.

Gayle Nelson once told me about finding Chrysobothris chiricahuae on pine slash at Rustler Park, so I was pleased to see several fresh slash piles when we arrived. I saw a Chrysobothris (presumably this species) on the very first branch in the very first pile that I looked at, but I missed it (damn!) and didn’t see any more in that pile. However, in the next pile I visited I saw two and got them both. I looked at a third pile and didn’t see any, nor did I see any more on the two previous piles that I looked at. Still, two is better than none (assuming this is, indeed, what they are!).

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Rustler Park, Chiricahua Mountains, Arizona.

Chiricahua National Monument
Not a bug collecting stop, but we wanted to drive into the monument and see the incredible rock formations which are best appreciated by driving through Bonita Canyon and then up to Massai Point. The unusual spires, columns, and balancing rocks are a result of erosion through vertical cracks in the compressed volcanic ash which was laid down in layers 25 million years ago and then uplifted. Tilting during uplift caused vertical fractures and slippage, into which water then worked its way to create today’s formations. One of the columns I saw is 143 feet tall and only 3 feet in diameter at one point near the base! Mexican jays were our constant, close companions as we hiked through the pinyon pine/oak/juniper woodland.

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Vicinity Gleeson, Arizona
There is a wash across N Ghosttown Trail with stands of Baccharis sarothroides growing along the sides. Art previously collected a single Cotinis impia on one of the plants, so we came back to check them. We didn’t find any, but we did find two fine males and one female Trachyderes mandibularis on a couple of the plants. I also found a dead Polycesta aruensis.

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Vicinity Tombstone, Arizona
Art saw Gyascutus caelatus here previously, so we came back and found them abundantly in sweet acacia (Acacia rigidula), which was in full bloom. They were extremely flighty and hard to catch, so we each got only four. I also collected one Stenaspis solitaria on the same and a Trachyderes mandibularis female in flight.

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Trachyderes mandibularis female

At another spot nearby, we stopped to look for Lampetus webbii, which Art had seen but not been able to collect when he was here a couple of weeks ago. We did not see any (but read on…), and I saw but did not collect a Trachyderes mandibularis and two Stenaspis solitaria. I also saw and photographed some giant mesquite bugs (Thasus neocalifornicus).

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Giant mesquite bugs (Thasus neocalifornicus).

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Note the heavily armed and thickened hind legs of the male (L) versus the more slender and red/black banded hind legs of the female (R).

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Not sure of the ID (other than ‘DYC’ – damned yellow composite).

The day ended enjoying steaks, Malbec, and Jameson with two of the best hosts ever!

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Day 3 – Box Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
Our first stop of the day was Box Canyon, a gorgeous, rugged canyon on the east side of the range. Mimosa dysocarpa was in bloom, off which I beat two Agrilus aeneocephalus, several Hippomelas planicauda, and one Stenaspis solitaria. Norm gave me an Acmaeodera cazieri that he’d collected on an unidentified yellow-flowered composite, and right afterwards I found some small, low-growing plants with purple flowers and sticky leaves (eventually ID’d as Allionia incarnata, or trailing four o’clock) to which Acmaeodera yuccavora and A. cazieri were flying in numbers. After that I crawled up top and beat the mesquites, getting one Chrysobothris sp., a mating pair of S. solitaria, and a couple of large clytrine leaf beetles.

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Box Canyon from just above the dry falls.

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Prickly poppy (Argemone mexicana) blooming along the roadside.

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Hippomelas planicauda mating pair on Mimosa dysocarpa.

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Allionia incarnata, flower host for Acmaeodera cazieri and Acm. yuccavora.

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Acmaeodera cazieri (left-center).

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Acmaeodera yuccavora.

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Lubber grasshopper (Taenipoda eques). The striking coloration warns potential predators that it is chemically protected.

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Datana sp. caterpillars.

Vicinity Duquesne, Arizona
We came here to look for Tetraopes skillmani (this is the type locality). We found the host plant (Sarcostemma sp.), but there were no beetles to be seen anywhere. Maybe another location nearby…

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Sarcostemma sp. (family Asclepiadaceae).

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Patagonia Pass, Patagonia Mountains, Arizona
We went up higher into the mountains to get into the oak woodland, where I hoped to find some of the harder-to-collect oak-associated Agrilus spp. Right away I beat one Agrilus restrictus off of Emory oak (Quercus emoryi), but no amount of beating produced anything more than a single Enoclerus sp.. I also beat the Arizona oak (Q. arizonica) and got only a single Macrosaigon sp. On Desmodium sp. I collected not only Pachyschelus secedens but a nice series of Agrilus arizonicus. For me it is the first time I’ve collected either A. restrictus and A. arizonicus, the former being quite uncommon as well, so all-in-all not a bad stop.

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Agrilus arizonicus mating pair – the males are brighter green than the females, which are more coppery.

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Unidentified plant.

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Me, Art Evans, and Norm Woodley.

Sycamore Canyon, Santa Cruz Mountains, Arizona
We came here for night lighting, but while we still had light I did some sweeping in the low vegetation and collected a mixed series of Agrilus arizonicus (on Desmodium sp.) and Agrilus pulchellus – the latter a first for me, along with two small cerambyids that could be Anopliomorpha rinconia. Conditions were perfect (warm, humid, and no moon), and we had lots of lights (Art’s five LED units, Steve’s MV/UV combo setup, and my UV setup), but longhorned beetles were scarce – just one Prionus heroicus and one Lepturges sp. for me, and Steve got a few others including a nice Aegomorphus sp. I did also collect a few scarabs – Chrysina gloriosa and Strategus alous – because they’re just so irresistible!

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A beacon in the night!

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Art, Steve, and Norm checking the lights.

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Chrysina gloriosa.

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A male oz beetle (Strategus aloeus).

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Eacles oslari is a western U.S. relative of the imperial moth (E. imperialis).

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Insects whirring around my head!


Day 4 – Prologue
One of the downsides (if you can call it that) of having great collecting is the need to take periodic “breaks” to process all the specimens and make my field containers available for even more specimens. Thanks to Steve and Norm for making their place available to Art and I so we can do this before heading out to our next set of localities.

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Copper Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona
Copper Canyon is the classic spot for finding the charismatic Agrilus cavatus (see photo), but first we did some sweeping in the low vegetation near the parking area, where Norm got one Agrilus arizonicus and two Agrilus latifrons – and gave them to me! (Thanks, Norm!) I did some beating of the oaks, and after much work I ended up with a single Agrilaxia sp. and pogonocherine cerambycid on Emory oak (Quercus emoryi) and a couple of giant clytrines on the Arizona oak (Q. arizonicus). I then started sweeping the low-growing Acaciella angustissima – right away I got two A. cavatus. They were in the area past the cattle guard on the right where lots of dead stems were sticking up, and although I continued to sweep the plants more broadly in the area I never saw another one. Finally, Norm called me up to a small Mimosa dysocarpa near the car off which he collected three Agrilus elenorae – and gave them to me! (Thanks, Norm!) I gave the tree a tap and got one more, and in my last round of sweeping I came up with a Taphrocerus sp. (must be some sedges growing amongst the grasses).

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Copper Canyon to the northwest.

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Copper Canyon to the north.

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Agrilus cavatus on its host plant, prairie acacia (Acaciella angustissima).

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Robber fly (family Asilidae) with prey (a ladybird beetle).

Bear Canyon Crossing, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona
There was quite a bit of Mimosa dysocarpa in bloom along the roadsides on the west side of the Bear Canyon crossing, which I beat hoping to find some more Agrilus elenorae. I didn’t find any, but I did get several more Hippomelas planicauda, which is a nice consolation prize – and a great photo of the last one! Other than that I did a lot of sweeping and found only a single Acmaeodera cazieri.

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Bear Canyon to the south.

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Bear Canyon to the north.

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Hippomelas planicauda on one of its hosts, velvetpod mimosa (Mimosa dysocarpa).

Appleton-Whittell Research Ranch of the National Audubon Society, Elgin, Arizona
Cool temperatures and a blustery wind discouraged most insects from finding our blacklights. However, our blacklight did find some other interesting local residents. These two individuals could be the stripe-tailed scorpion, Paravaejovis (Hoffmannius) spinigerus, a common species in Arizona and southwestern New Mexico.

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Day 5 – Miller Canyon Recreation Area, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona
There was a lot of Baccharis sarothroides growing in the lower canyon near the parking area, so I checked it all out hoping to find Tragidion annulatum. None were seen, and in fact there was very little insect life in general. I did pick up a couple of Acmaeodera solitaria by sweeping – not anything significant but the 15th species buprestid of the trip and found a dead Cotinis mutabilis, and Art got a nice series of Chalcolepidius click beetles on B. sarothroides and Prosopis glandulosa. Puzzling the lack of insect activity, given how green all the plants were and how fresh the growth looked. I guess we’ll have to look elsewhere.

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Acanthocephala thomasi, a leaf-footed bug (family Coridae).

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I was all lined up for a side shot of the bug when suddenly he took flight.

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Turkey vultures hanging out waiting for me to die!

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Actually they were all hanging out around a dead cat, some of which I scared up as they were feeding on it.

Vicinity Naco, Arizona
We decided to try some desert thorn-scrub habitat so headed east towards Bisbee. Just north of Naco we saw some habitat where it had rained recently – everything was green with the sweet acacia (Acacia rigidula) and creosote (Larrea tridentata) in full bloom. Immediately out of the car I found a Dendrobias mandibularis on Baccharis sarothroides (and when I came back to it later I found a big, major male on it – see photos). On the sweet acacia we found a handful of Gyascutus caelatus (one of which I got a nice photo of), a mating pair of Sphaenothecus bivittatus, and a Cymatodera sp. Finally, out along the roadsides a riot of different yellow composites were in full bloom, including Heliomeris longifolia off which Art got a couple of Acmaeodera solitaria and I got two specimens of a large Acmaeodera sp. (blue-black with numerous small irregular yellow spots).

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Dendrobias mandibularis – major male.

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Them’s some mandibles!

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Gyascutus caelatus on Acacia rigidula.

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A blister beetle (family Meloidae) in the genus Zonitis – either sayi or dunnianus – on Heliomeris longifolia.

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Heliomeris longifolia – host flower for both the Zonitis blister beetle and Acmaeodera sp. jewel beetle.

Vicinity Tombstone, Arizona
We decided to go back to the spot north of Tombstone where Art had earlier seen Lampetis webbii and give that species another shot. We looked at the Rhus sp. tree that he’d seen them on, and then we each followed the wash in opposite directions looking at the Rhus trees along them, which growing above the banks but never further away than about 25 feet. Along the way I collected several more Gyascutus caelatus on sweet acacia (Acacia rigida), which were more abundant this time than last and also easier to catch. After walking about 1/4-mile down the wash I saw something fly from a Rhus tree and land low on the bushes nearby. I quickly netted it, pulled it out, and was elated to see that it was, indeed, Lampetis webbii! I searched the Rhus in the area more carefully but didn’t find any more, then found some Rhus growing up along the road. At one point, I saw a large buprestid fly and land high in the top of another Rhus tree. I couldn’t tell for sure if it was L. webbii, but I extended my net as far as I could, positioned it beneath the beetle, and tapped the branch hoping it would fall in. Unfortunately, it flew away instead of dropping, so I can’t say for sure whether it was L. webbii or just a wayward G. caelatus. At any rate, L. webbii is yet another species that I have not collected before now and the 17th buprestid species of the trip.

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Lampetis webbii, collected on Rhus sp.

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Stenaspis solitaria on Acacia rigidula.

Ramsey Canyon, Huachuca Mountains, Arizona
After returning from Tombstone, we visited Pat & Lisa Sullivan at their home at the end of Ramsey Canyon. Pat is a scarab collector who runs lights at his home nightly, and after a delicious dinner we spent the rest of the evening checking the lights. I was hoping to collect Prionus heroicus, and I got my wish. Also got Prionus californicus and several other non-cerambycid beetles such as Chrysina beyeri, C. gloriosa, Lucanus mazama, and Parabyrsopolis chihuahuae (the latter a first for me). I also placed a prionic acid lure (thanks Steve!) and got three more male P. heroicus. We also hunted around the rocks and roadsides hoping to find Amblycheila baroni but didn’t find any. Art did, however, find a female P. californicus and gave it to me (thanks!).

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Meeting Pat Sullivan!

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Darkling beetles (family Tenebrionidae) such as this one come out at night to feed on decaying vegetation.

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Chrysina beyeri (family Scarabaeidae) is one of three species in the genus occurring in Ramsey Canyon.

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Black-tailed rattlesnake (Crotalus molossus), collected by Pat in Ramsey Canyon.

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Sidewinder (Crotalus cerastes lateropens), collected by Pat in Yuma County.

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“Sometimes the best collecting is inside!”


Day 6 – Vicinity Sonoita, Arizona
Unsuccessful attempt to collect Hippomelas martini, only recently described (Bellamy & Nelson, 1998) and part of the type series taken somewhere near this spot (“20 mi NE Patagonia, Hwy 82”) by “sweeping roadside vegetation”. At other locations it had been recorded on Calliandra sp., and I found patches of the plant here along and on top of the road cuts. This gives me confidence that I found the right spot, but I didn’t encounter this or any other beetles by sweeping the patches or visually inspecting them.

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Box Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
We decided to come back to Box Canyon since we’d had such good luck last time. I started at the spot above the dry falls where I collected so many Acmaeodera cazieri and A. yuccavora on flowers of Allionia incarnata. This time it was hotter, drier, and windier, and the flowers were semi-closed. Still I found a few of each. I then started walking down the road towards the lower canyon crossing where I would meet up with Art. Things were really hopping on the Mimosa dysocarpa, with Hippomelas planicauda abundant (finally collected my fill) and several other Buprestidae also beaten from the plants: Agrilus aeneocepahlus, Acmaeodera scalaris, Acmaeodera cazieri, Chrysobothris sp., and a species of Spectralia! (seven species of Buprestidae at one location I think is the high for the trip.) I checked other plants and flowers along the way down but didn’t find much.

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Halfway down from the “dry falls”.

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The “dry falls” about halfway up the canyon.

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Pseudovates arizonae – the aptly named Arizona unicorn mantis.

Lower Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
Madera Canyon is perhaps the most famous insect collecting locality in Arizona – maybe in the country, and it is hard to make a visit to Arizona without stopping by here. We elected to work the lower canyon first in an area where Chrysobothris chalcophoroides has been taken on Arizona oaks (Quercus arizonicus). Hiking towards the oaks I found some Stenaspis solitaria in a Baccharis sarothroides and marveled at the variety of other insects active on the plants (see photos) – later I would also collect an elaphidiine cerambycid on the plant. Next I started working the oaks, beating every branch I could reach with my net handle. With one whack of the stick a single Paratyndaris sp. and a single Brachys sp. landed on my sheet – those would be the only buprestids I would collect off the oaks! Other than that I collected one Hippomelas planicauda on Mimosa dysocarpa for the record. While I was working the oaks up in the knoll, the weather started turning with blustery winds, and I could see the rain coming in the distance. By the time I got down from the knoll the rain had arrived, and I walked back to the car in a sunny downpour using my beating sheet as an umbrella!

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Madera Canyon in the Santa Rita Mountains.

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Acanthocephala thomasi on Baccharis sarothroides.

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What appears to be a so-called “cricket killer” wasp (Chlorion aerarium) also feeds on sap on Baccharis sarothroides.

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A longhorned beetle, probably in the genus Aneflus, rests on the foliage of Baccharis sarothroides.

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Rain headed my way!

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Rain passing into neighboring Florida Canyon.

Montosa Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
Just to try something different, we went to Montosa Canyon – the next canyon south of Madera Canyon – for tonight’s blacklighting. We set my sheet up just E of the crossing and Arts ground units back to the west along a gravel road on the south side of the crossing. Moths came in numbers, but the beetles were light – I collected only blister beetles (Epicauta sp.) and a Cymatodera sp. checkered beetle at the sheet, a series of tiger beetles and a female Strategus cessus at the second ground unit, and a male Strategus aloeus and two Stenelaphus alienus at the third ground unit.

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A gorgeous sunset to start the evening.

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A deepening dusk brings the promise of insects at the lights. 

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A bee assassin bug, Apiomerus flaviventris.

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An ocotillo, or calleta, silkmoth – Eupackardia calleta.

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One of the western riparian tiger beetles.


Day 7 (last day) – Vicinity Continental, Arizona
There was a photo posted on BugGuide of Stenaspis verticalis taken last week, so we decided to give it a shot and see if we could get lucky and find it ourselves. We checked all the Baccharis sarothroides within ½-mile if the spot but didn’t find it. I did, however, collect four Euphoria leucographa, two Chalcolepidius smaragdula, two Aneflus spp., and singletons of Stenaspis solitaria and Dendrobias mandibularis. I also took a couple of Hippomelas planicauda on Mimosa dysocarpa – just for the record!

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Euphoria leucographa on Baccharis sarothroides.

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Chalcolepidius smaragdinus on Baccharis sarothroides.

Lower Madera Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
We returned to work the lower canyon area. I’d heard that the tiger beetle Cicindelidia obsoleta santaclarae has been taken in the area last week so was hoping to run into it. While Art worked the east side of the road I worked the west, initially following FR-781 into what looked like grassland areas where the tiger beetle might occur. I didn’t see any but took Acmaeodera scalaris on Heterotheca sp. flowers and Acmaeodera solitaria on Argemone mexicana flowers. There was also a fresh wind-thrown mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa) with a bunch of Chrysobothris octocola and one Chrysobothris rossi on it. Still the area looked abused from grazing and was uninteresting, so I looked for another area to explore.

Northwest of the parking lot I spotted another grassy area that was dotted with Baccharis sarothroides, so I decided to give that area a look. After clambering several times through barbed wire fence, I reached the area and began to give it a look. Still no tiger beetles, but every time I passed a B. sarothroides I inspected it closely. I’d looked at several plants when I came upon one with a Stenaspis solitaria sitting in the foliage, and when I looked down on one of the stems and saw a big male Tragidion sp. on the underside of the stem. After securing it, I looked closer at the plant and saw a pair of annulated antennae crawling up another stem – I knew right away it was a mating pair of Stenaspis verticalis! After carefully moving to the other side to confirm, I dared to take a few photos in situ (see below) and then secured the couple. Of course, this gave me newfound motivation to work the entire area to look for more. It was very hot by then, and I was already quite thirsty, but I summoned up all the stamina that I could and worked as many plants as I could, ending up with six Tragidion spp. and three Stenaspis verticalis. The latter was one of my top priority targets for this trips, and the only thing more satisfying than getting it is doing so on my last day on the field.

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View to south edge of Madera Canyon – Elephant Head is at the right.

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Chrysobothris octocola female ovipositing on freshly killed mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa).

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Tragidion sp. mating pair on Baccharis sarothroides.

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Mating pair of Stenaspis verticalis on Baccharis sarothroides.

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Chalcolepidius lenzi at a sap flow on Baccharis sarothroides.

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Lateral view of Chalcolepidius lenzi.

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Barrel cactus in bloom.

Montosa Canyon, Santa Rita Mountains, Arizona
We  returned to Montosa Canyon and stopped at the Astronomy Vista partway up. It was hotter than bejeebuz! There was not an insect to be seen except giant cactus bugs and a single Euphoria leucographa that Art found on a sapping Baccharis sarothroides. Temp was 103°F even at this elevation!

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Stunning vista during the day! 

We needed to escape the heat, and I wanted to see oaks for one more crack at Mastogenius, so we drove up to the 13-km marker and I collected on the way back down to below the 12-km marker. Conditions were much more agreeable (temps in the 80s), and near the top there was a Ceanothus sp. bush in bloom, off which I collected Rhopalophora meeskei and Stenosphenus sp. – both genera represented by individuals with black versus red pronotum. Then I started beating the (Mexican blue, I believe) oaks, and right away I got a Mastogenius sp.! Kinda small, so I’m thinking not M. robusta and, thus, probably M. puncticollis (another species new to my collection). I also beat a largish Agrilus sp. that I don’t recognize, a few clerids, two R. meeskei, one Stenosphenus sp., and a couple of leaf beetles. There was also another type of oak there – Arizona white, I believe, which I beat as well but only got one clerid.

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Spectacular views from 7000 ft!

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A lichen moth on flowers of Ceanothus sp.

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The biggest, fattest, bristliest tachinid fly I have ever seen!

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The spectacular vistas just keep on coming!

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An ancient alligator juniper stares down yet another sunset (perhaps its 50 thousandth!).

We stopped by the Astronomy Vista again on our way back down the canyon, and I found a pair of Moneilema gigas on cholla (Opuntia imbricata).

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Obligatory dusk shot of Moneilema gigas on Opuntia imbricata.

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Another individual on the same plant.

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Sunset over “Las Cuatro Hermanas”.

It was a fantastic seven days in the field with Arthur, and it was a great pleasure to (in some cases, finally) meet Margarethe, Barbara, Steven, Norm, and Pat. I appreciate the warmth, generosity, and hospitality that all of them displayed to me and look forward to our next encounter, hopefully in the near future.

© Ted C. MacRae 2019

“The Botanists Among Us: Host plant specialization in insects”

It’s been a busy week for me—just two days after doing a presentation on tiger beetles to the Webster Groves Nature Society’s Entomology Group, I gave a talk to the St. Louis Chapter of the Missouri Native Plant Society. As implied by the title, the talk focused on host plant specialization among insects, first covering the major groups of plant-feeding insects and the evolutionary themes involved in adaption to (and away from) plant-feeding, then moving to examples of different types of host plant specificity and highlighting some of the more interesting insects that I’ve encountered (and managed to photograph) over the years.

Like my talk two nights earlier, it was another fun and lighthearted conversation with a highly engaged crowd, and I appreciate the great interest shown by a group that is normally much more focused on plants than on insects. Once again, it was well-attended locally, but for the benefit of those who were not able to attend the meeting in person and that may be interested in this subject, I’ve prepared a PDF version* of the presentation that you can download and peruse at your convenience.

* All content is copyrighted and may not be reproduced or distributed without written consent.

© Ted C. MacRae 2019

The “black bringer of light”

During last year’s Fall Tiger Beetle Collecting Trip, I spent a day visiting cemeteries in the Post Oak Savannah region of northeastern Texas to look for tiger beetles associated with open sand in and around the cemeteries. It had been a good day, and I thought I would try to squeeze in one more visit to a locality I had visited earlier in the day. By the time I arrived at Sand Flat Cemetery in Henderson Co., however, it was almost 6 p.m.—the sun was still up, but the shadows were long and no tiger beetles were found. Not all insects, however, are so quick to turn in as tiger beetles, so I lingered for awhile and eventually found an area where several large bee flies (family Bombyliidae) were seen flying and briefly perching on the ground or the tips of plains snakecotton (Froelichia floridana). Since this was the last stop of the day and there were no tiger beetles to demand my attention, I spent a fair bit of time trying to photograph these very skittish flies and ended up with photos of two different individuals that I was happy with.

Poecilanthrax lucifer

Poecilanthrax lucifer (Fabricius, 1775)—Sand Flat Cemetery, Henderson Co., Texas

Alex Harman was the first to suggest they might represent the species Poecilanthrax lucifer based on a quick iPhone photo that I posted on Facebook, a hunch that was eventually confirmed by Bishop Museum dipterist Neil Evenhuis based on these photos sent to him by e-mail. Poecilanthrax  is a strictly North American (sensu lato) genus that, at the time of its last revision by Painter & Hall (1960), contained 35 species. Although distributed from Canada south through Central America, the greatest abundance of species and individuals is found in the Great Basin region, and, so far as is known, the larvae develop as parasites inside caterpillars of various cutworms and armyworms (family Noctuidae).

Poecilanthrax lucifer

Adults were found perching on the flowers of plains snakecotton (Froelichia floridana)

Poecilanthrax lucifer is one of the more widely distributed species in the genus, occurring predominantly in the West Indies and southern Gulf States but also ranging south into Central America and north into Arkansas and southern Illinois. It is distinguished from other species in the genus by its conspicuous black and yellow tomentose (densely covered with short matted woolly hairs) crossbands on the abdomen and the bases of the larger veins yellow or tan and contrasting with the remainder of the wing color pattern.

Poecilanthrax lucifer

Black and yellow tomentose abdominal bands and yellow/tan larger wing veins distinguish this species.

Like other species in the genus, P. lucifer is known to parasitize noctuid caterpillars, having been reared from fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) and exhibiting parasitism rates of up to 25%. This species is unique in the genus, however, in that it has also been reported as a hyperparasite (parasite of a parasite) of Myzine haemorrhoidalis (family Tiphiidae), a primary parasite of white grubs (genus Phyllophaga) in Puerto Rico. The life histories of many species in the genus remain unknown, however, so perhaps other species in the genus will eventually be found to act as hyperparasites as well. All species of Poecilanthrax appear to be univoltine (one generation per year) in natural habitats; however, P. lucifer and a few others that frequent agricultural areas have been found to become facultatively bivoltine or multivoltine due to the extended seasonal availability of pest caterpillars that often occur in these situations.

Poecilanthrax lucifer

“Satanic deadly disease” or “black bringer of light”?

The scientific name of Poecilanthrax lucifer is perhaps one of the more ominous sounding names I’ve encountered. “Anthrax” is, of course, commonly associated with the often deadly infectious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, while “lucifer” is none other than Satan himself! However, I suspect that the name of the genus refers not to the disease, but rather its original Greek meaning of “charcoal” in reference to the often black color of the adult flies. Likewise, the original Latin meaning of the word “Lucifer” is “morning star” or “Venus” when used as a noun and “light-bringing” when used as an adjective—only after a series of corruptions through repeated transcriptions and translations of the Bible did it become a name synonymous with the Devil. Thus, a name that could be interpreted as “Satanic deadly disease” might actually mean the “black bringer of light”.

REFERENCE:

Painter, R. H. & J. C. Hall. 1960. A monograph of the genus Poecilanthrax (Diptera: Bombyliidae). Kansas State University of Agriculture and Applied Science, Agricultural Experiment Station, Technical Bulletin 106, 132 pp. [HathiTrust pdf].

© Ted C. MacRae 2016

2015 Texas Collecting Trip iReport—Fall Tiger Beetles

This is the fourth in a series of “Collecting Trip iReports”—so named because I’ve illustrated them exclusively with iPhone photographs. As I’ve mentioned in previous articles in this series (2013 Oklahoma2013 Great Basin, and 2014 Great Plains), I tend to favor my iPhone camera for general photography—i.e., habitats, landscapes, miscellaneous subjects, etc.—during collecting trips and save my full-sized dSLR camera only for those subjects that I want high-quality macro photographs of. iPhones are not only small, handy, and quick but also capable (within reason) of quite good photographs (see this post for tips on making the most of the iPhone camera’s capabilities). This keeps the amount of time that I need to spend taking photos at a minimum, thus allowing more time for the trip’s intended purpose—collecting! Those photos form the basis of this overall trip synopsis, while photos taken with the ‘real’ camera will be featured in future posts on individual subjects.

Last year during late September and early October I travelled to eastern and central Texas. This trip was all about fall tiger beetles, in particular certain subspecies of the Festive Tiger Beetle (Cicindela scutellaris) and Big Sand Tiger Beetle (Cicindela formosa) found in that area that I had not yet seen. I enjoy all collecting trips, but fall tiger beetle trips are among the most enjoyable of all—cooler temperature, a changing landscape, and charismatic subjects that are both fun and challenging to find and photograph. This trip was no different, with spectacular weather during the entire week and, for the most part, great success in finding the species/subspecies that I was after. At this point I’d like to acknowledge the help of several people—David Hermann (Ft. Worth, Texas), David Brzoska (Naples, Florida), and Steve Spomer (Lincoln, Nebraska), who generously provided information on species and localities. My success at finding these beetles was due in large part to the information they provided.


Day 1 – Cobb Hollow

My car

Little question about what I am doing out here.

After driving 700 miles from my home near St. Louis, I arrived at the first stop of trip—Cobb Hollow in north-central Texas. This small creek lined with deep, dry sand is close to Forestburg (Montegue County)—the type locality of Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis, a beautiful, all-green subspecies with the elytra suffused golden-yellow.  The habitat looked very promising from the start, and it wasn’t long before I found the first tiger beetle of the trip—a gorgeous, red nominate Big Sand Tiger Beetle (Cicindela formosa formosa). Not long after that I found the first Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis, and over the next few hours I would find a total of nine individuals. Despite the extensive habitat along the creek the beetles were quite localized, occurring primarily in two dry sand areas within a mile west of the bridge. This spot is actually near the northern limit of the subspecies’ distribution, and several of the individuals showed varying influence from nominate scutellaris with the elytra tending to be more red than yellow-green. There was a diversity of other tiger beetles here as well—C. formosa formosa was the only one that was common, but I did find also a few individuals each of Tetracha carolina, Cicindelidia punctulata, Cicindela splendida, and C. repanda. A very cool place.

Cobb Hollow from bridge

View of Cobb Hollow east from the bridge

Sand bar along creek

Dry sand deposits line the creek.

Robber fly with bumble bee prey

I watched this robber fly snag a bumble bee in mid-flight.

Ted MacRae at Cobb Hollow

Looking down onto the creek from the bridge.


Day 2 – Stalking the Limestone Tiger Beetle

Today was all about looking for the Limestone Tiger Beetle, Cicindelidia politula. I have collected this species previously at several sites in Erath and Somervell Counties, Texas (west of Ft. Worth) and featured photographs from that trip. However, since I would be passing through the area on my way south I decided to spend a day looking for it again and, hopefully, collecting a few more specimens. Cicindelidia politula is related to the much more common and widespread Punctured Tiger Beetle, C. punctulata, but is shiny blue-black with the elytral markings absent or limited to the apices and the abdomen red. I visited several localities—two new ones for me in Erath County and another I had visited previously in Somervell County, with habitats that ranged from rocky clay to white limestone exposures along roadsides and even limestone gravel.

I found a fair number of individuals at the first site (1.7 mi SW Bluff Dale, Jct US-377 & FM-1188), which had a finely ground limestone substrate. Most of the individuals were flushed from the base of clumps of bunch grass and captured when they landed in more exposed situations.

Limestone habitat for Cicindelidia politula

Cicindelidia politula habitat—1.7 mi SW of Bluff Dale.

The beetle had also been reported along the roadsides at the second location (0.4 mi E Jct FM-2481 on CR-539), but the only individual I saw here was on a very coarse crushed limestone 2-track leading off of the main road.

Limestone habitat for Cicindelidia politula

Cicindelidia politula habitat—0.4 mi E Jct FM-2481 on CR-539.

The species was most numerous at the third site in Somervell County (3.4 mi SE Jct US-67 on CR-2013). I collected ten individuals and saw probably that many more on white limestone exposures along the roadside and along a dirt road cut along the base of the hill to the NE side of the highway. Most of the beetles in the latter area were seen along the scraped dirt road (at left in 2nd photo below), although presumably the beetles also utilized the undisturbed, surrounding habitat.

Limestone habitat for Cicindelidia politula

Cicindelidia politula habitat on white, limestone exposures along the roadside.

Limestone habitat for Cicindelidia politula

Cicindelidia politula habitat on white limestone hillside and scraped dirt road.

Catching the beetles at this last locality was challenging—the adults are fast and flighty, and the rough, rocky habitat made it difficult to clamp the net over the beetle and pounce on top of the rim before they were able to find a gap and escape. With practice I found my catch efficiency increased a little bit if I slowly approached the beetle and then made an assertive swing with the net right when the beetle began to fly—the trick is learning how to tell when they are ready to fly (and “assertive” is the key word!). Tiger Beetle Stalker; however, does not quit!

Tiger beetle stalker!

Tiger Beetle Stalker!


Day 3 (Part 1) – Pedernales Fall State Park

This was another locality where Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis had been recorded. I came here to find this subspecies even though I had seen it two days previously at Cobb Hollow, because that latter population showed some slight intergradation of characters from nominate C. scutellaris and I wanted to get field photographs of a “pure” population. I was pretty excited when I saw extensive dry sand habitat lining the upper bank area along the Perdenales River; however, I found no tiger beetles of any kind after extensive searching through that habitat. I did note the area seemed dry and reasoned that perhaps timely rains had not yet triggered emergence of C. scutellaris, C. formosa, and other sand-loving fall tiger beetles. I did find a small area of wet sand right along the water’s edge where three species of Cicindelidia could be seen: C. ocellata rectilatera, C. trifasciata ascendens, and C. punctulata. I’ve photographed all of these species before, so I didn’t try to spend any time doing so here. However, combined with the species seen the previous two days, this made a total of ten species seen on the trip so far. Although I didn’t find the beetle I was looking for, I marveled at the beauty of the area, especially the Pedernales River with its hard, conglomerate bedrock and mini shut-ins and spent quite a bit of time here taking photographs.

Perdenales River

The Perdenales River is the centerpiece of the state park.

Schistocerca americana or nitens

Schistocerca americana or S. nitens (ID courtesy of Matt Brust).

Perdenales River

Shut-ins are extensive along the Perdenales River.

Poecilognathus sp.

Bee flies (family Bombyliidae), prob. Poecilognathus sp. (ID courtesy Rob Velten).


Day 3 (Part 2) – Lick Creek Park

Another of the Festive Tiger Beetle subspecies that I wanted to look for was Cicindela scutellaris rugata. I had several localities from which this solid blue-green subspecies has been recorded, and this site was the nearest of those that I planned to visit. The drive from Pedernales State Park was longer than I anticipated, so I didn’t get to this spot until close to 6 p.m. At first I worried that I wouldn’t have enough time to even find suitable habitat, but that was no problem as I quickly found the Post Oak Trail and its perfect open, post oak woodland with deep sand substrate. By all accounts the beetles should have been all over the trail but they weren’t. As with the previous site, the area was quite dry as evidenced by the wilted plants along the trail side, and I also note that the previous record from here was on Oct. 23rd—more than three weeks later. Despite the fact that I didn’t find any tiger beetles, I did see a young timber rattle snake (Crotalus horridus) crossing the trail late in the hike—I took a quick shot with the iPhone (see below) and then broke out the big camera and was able fire off a few shots before it left the trail and headed for cover. (Several people walking the trail came upon us, and they were all—happily—more than willing to oblige my requests to stay away until I was finished.)

Sand woodlant habitat for Cicindela scutellaris rugosa

Post oak woodland with dry sand substrate seems to be perfect for Cicindela scutellaris rugata.

Wilted American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana)

Wilted American beautyberry (Callicarpa americana).

Timber rattlesnake (Crotolus horridus)

A youngish (prob. ~32″ in length) timber rattlesnake (Crotolus horridus) was a treat to see.


Day 4 – East Texas cemeteries

Cemeteries are often great places to look for tiger beetles because they tend to be located on parcels of land with low agricultural value that were donated by landowners to local churches. Older cemeteries especially tend not to be highly maintained and, thus, offer excellent habitat for tiger beetles. My goals for this day were Cicindela scutellaris rugata and the gorgeous Cicindela formosa pigmentosignata. I had records of both from a couple of cemeteries in eastern Texas (Sand Flat Pioneer Cemetery in Henderson and Morris Chapel Cemetery in Van Zandt Counties) and found good numbers of both along sandy 2-tracks and sparsely to moderately vegetated sand exposures in and around the cemetery grounds. I don’t have any iPhone photographs to share of either of these species, but I did spent a lot of time with the big camera and got a number of photos of each that I am quite pleased with—I’ll share those in future posts. The cemeteries themselves were haunting and poignant, with some headstones dating back to the late 1800s.

Sandy 2-track habitat for Cicindela scutellaris rugata & C. formosa pigmentosignata

Sandy 2-track habitat for Cicindela scutellaris rugata & C. formosa pigmentosignata at Sand Flat Pioneer Cemetery, Henderson County, Texas.

 

Ant mound

Pogonomyrmex sp. poss. barbatus tend their nest entrance (ID courtesy of Ben Coulter).

Sand Flat Pioneer Cemetery

Oldest section of Sand Flat Pioneer Cemetery.

Died Nov 10, 1874

Fallen, but not forgotten—yet (died Nov 10, 1874).

Oldest headstones (late 1800s)

Oldest headstones (late 1800s) at rest under the shade of huge, red-cedar trees.

Oldest person (106 yrs old)

The oldest person died at 106 years of age (born in 1804).

At Morris Chapel Cemetery I found C. formosa pigmentosignata and C. scutellaris rugata on sparsely vegetated deep dry sand 2-track north of the cemetery. I did also manage to get field photos of the former before it got too hot and they became too active. There were also a few of the latter in the open sandy ground just outside the northwestern edge of the cemetery. As with Sand Flat Pioneer Cemetery, I spent a bit of time in the cemetery proper to look at the headstones—the oldest headstone also being the most poignant; a one and a half-year old boy who died in 1881.

Sandy 2-track habitat for Cicindela scutellaris rugata & C. formosa pigmentosignata

Sandy 2-track habitat near Morris Chapel Cemetery.

Morris Chapel Cemetery

A large, spreading post oak shades pioneers at rest.

Died 1881 (age 1½ yrs)

A poignant headstone (died 1881 at 1½ years of age).

After finishing up at Morris Chapel Cemetery I returned to Sand Flat Cemetery to see if I could get more field photographs before the beetles bedded down for the night. The sun was still up when I arrived a little before 6 p.m., but the shadows were long and no beetles were seen. Not one to waste an opportunity, I broke out the big camera anyway and started photographing a large species of bee fly (family Bombyliidae) that was perching on the ground and on the tips of plains snakecotton (Froelichia floridana).

Undet. bee fly

Bee fly (family Bombyliidae), poss. Poecilanthrax lucifer? (ID courtesy Alex Harman).


Day 5 (Part 1) – Cowtown Bowman Archery Club

With both specimens and good field photos of Cicindela scutellaris rugata and C. formosa pigmentosignata in hand, I returned my attention to C. scutellaris flavoviridis. Again, I did already have specimens in hand from Cobb Hollow, but most of them showed some degree of intergradation with nominate C. scutellaris and I was hoping to see some “pure” individuals. Failing to find it at the more southerly locations (Pedernales State Park and Lick Creek Park), I had one more location in Tarrant County where the subspecies had been recorded—a sand borrow pit near the entrance of Cowtown Bowman Archery Club. Once again I searched the area thoroughly for a couple of hours during mid-morning but did not see the subspecies or any other tiger beetles. Conditions were overcast and cool (72°F), but I do not think this explains the absence of adults. Rather, I think I was on the early side of the season and they just hadn’t started emerging at this site.

While I was at the site I found several tiger beetle larval burrows in a moderately vegetated area near the deeper sand deposits that were occupied by Tetracha carolina, so I used the “stab” or “ambush” method to collect several 3rd instars for an attempt at rearing. For those of you who are not familiar with this technique, a knife is set at a 45° angle with the tip in the soil about 1″ from the edge of the burrow. Then you wait, sometimes for quite a while, until the larva reappears at the top of the burrow and STAB the knife assertively into the soil to block the larva from retreating. The larvae are extremely wary with excellent vision and will usually drop back down immediately when they see you, so you have to be ready and act quickly. Once the retreat is blocked, a simple twist of the knife to expose the larva is all that is needed. I prepared larval habitats by placing native soil with as intact a top layer as possible in plastic critter carriers, made a starter hole for each larva with a pencil, dropped each larva into one of the holes, and then pushed the soil to seal the burrow entrance. This prevents the larvae from crawling right back out of the starter burrow, which can result in them encountering and fighting each other. The larvae will eventually reopen the burrow entrance, but after being sealed inside for a while they usually accept the burrow and further modify it to suit their needs.

 

Sandy grassland habitat for Tetracha prob. carolina

Sandy grassland habitat for Tetracha carolina.

Larval burrows (lower left) can be recognized by their clean, almost perfectly round, beveled edge. The presence of fresh soil diggings cast to one side (upper right) indicates the burrow is occupied by an active larva.

Tetracha prob. carolina larval burrow

Tetracha carolina larval burrow with cast soil diggings.

Using the “stab” or “ambush” method to collect larvae. One must have patience to successfully use this method.

"Stab 'n; grab" method to collect tiger beetle larvae (Tetracha prob. carolina)

Using the “stab” or “ambush” method to collect tiger beetle larvae.


Day 5 (Part 2) – Cobb Hollow (epilogue)

Although I had found Cicindela scutellaris flavoviridis at this site on the first day of the trip, I had not taken any field photographs in hopes of finding a more “pure” population at one of the more southerly locations. That did not happen, so I returned to Cobb Hollow on this last day in the field to get field photographs from the population there. Temperatures were a bit cooler (mid-70s) and cloud cover was variable, actually sprinkling when I arrived mid-afternoon but eventually clearing. This seemed to have no detrimental effect on adult presence, and it may have actually helped as I was able to photograph the very first individual that I found to my heart’s content. I collected that individual and the next three that I saw by hand and found two more over the next hour—all on the same deep, dry sand bars west of the bridge where I had seen them previously. Curiously, Cicindela formosa was strangely absent from these same areas where they had been so numerous a few days earlier.

Habitat for Cicindela formosa formosa and C. scutellaris flavoviridis

Deep, dry sand deposit where most of C. scutellaris flavoviridis were seen.

On the east side of the bridge I collected two more Tetracha carolina in the same moderately vegetated sandy clay spot as last time, then went on to the furthest dry sand bar where I found and photographed (but did not collect) a single C. formosa (only one shot before it took off). I also found a female green lynx spider (Peucetia viridans) sitting on her egg mass and got some nice macro photos as well as this iPhone shot (talk about a face only a mother could love!).

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Female green lynx spider (Peucetia viridans) atop her egg mass.


I hope you’ve enjoyed this collecting trip iReport. Stay tuned for true macro photographs of the tiger beetles and other insects/arthropods that I photographed on this trip in more subject-specific posts. You are also welcome to leave feedback in the comments below.

Ted MacRae w/ field collecting equipment & camera

© Ted C. MacRae 2016

Party on a pin oak

In September 2012 while collecting in western Oklahoma (Weatherford) I came across this interesting scene. It had been exceedingly dry in the area, and because of this few insects were out and about in the small city park that I stopped by to check for the presence of tiger beetles. I had nearly completed my circuit of the park when I came upon a moderate-sized pin oak (Quercus palustris) tree and noticed something on the lower trunk:

Six insect species representing five families in four orders share a sap flow.

Six insect species representing five families in four orders share a sap flow on the trunk of a pin oak.

No less than six insect species representing four orders were seen all huddled together at a darkly stained sap flow. This could be the result of slime flux, a bacterial disease that usually affects deciduous hardwoods that are under stress and results in darkly stained weeps on the trunk that are known to be attractive to a variety of insects. At the center sat a green June beetle (Cotinis nitida) and three bumble flower beetles (Euphoria inda)—all in the family Scarabaeidae (subfamily Cetoniinae). Covering the scarab beetles were half a dozen Texas Tawny Emperor (Asterocampa clyton texana) butterflies (family Nymphalidae, or Brushfooted Butterflies), and milling around the perimeter was a velvet ant (Dasymutilla creusa, I believe) in the family Mutillidae, an apparent flesh fly (family Sarcophagidae), and a true ant (family Formicidae). I guess this would be the equivalent to a watering hole in Africa with a lion, a hyena, a baboon, three vervet monkeys and six zebras all crouched shoulder-to-shoulder at its edge.

Euphoria sepulchralis feeds on a sap flow higher up on the trunk.

Euphoria sepulchralis feeds on a sap flow higher up on the trunk.

Further up on the trunk, yet another species of scarab beetle, a dark flower scarab (Euphoria sepulchralis) was found feeding on a smaller sap ooze. Unlike the diverse aggregation of insects on the lower ooze, this guy had managed to keep the ooze all to himself.

Cotinus nitidus | Weatherford, Oklahoma

Cotinis nitida | Weatherford, Oklahoma

Green June beetles, especially, are known for their feeding on sap oozes. The beetles are actually attracted to the odors caused by fermentation of the sap rather than the sap itself. It has been reported that the presence of alcohol in fermenting sap can affect the behaviour of insects that feed upon it, causing them to act “stupid and lethargic.” I did not see any such behavior, but I did notice that the insects were not at all skittish and loath to leave the sap.

Copyright © Ted C. MacRae 2013

T.G.I.Flyday: Soybean nodule fly

I’ve been walking the rows of soybean fields for many years now, and while it might seem that I would have very quickly seen all there was to see in terms of insects associated with the crop, this is not the case. The major players are almost always present—lepidopteran caterpillars such as velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis) and soybean looper (Chrysodeixis includens), and stink bugs such as southern green stink bug (Nezara viridula), red-banded stink bug (Piezodorus guildinii) and brown stink bugs (Euschistus spp.). However, numerous other insects can be found at one time or another—some of great importance from the perspective of the farmer producer but others with very little impact on the crop. During a tour of soybean fields in Mississippi this past September, I saw a large number of “signal flies”¹ (family Platystomatidae) on the foliage of the soybean plants that I presumed to represent the soybean nodule fly, Rivellia quadrifasciata

¹ I originally learned these to be “picture-winged flies”—a name now more commonly used to refer to members of the family Ulidiidae—which I learned as “Otitidae”!

² This species can be separated with certainty from the closely related and largely sympatric species R. colei only by examination of male genitalia (Namba 1956). Rivellia quadrifasciata is more common and widespread than R. colei and is the species cited in literature in association with soybean.

Rivellia quadrifasciata (soybean nodule fly) | Stoneville, Mississipi

Rivellia quadrifasciata (soybean nodule fly) | Stoneville, Mississipi

Rivellia quadrifasciata is widely distributed in the eastern U.S. where it originally fed probably on tick trefoil, Desmodium spp. (Foote et al. 1987), but has since adapted to soybean, Glycines max (Eastman & Wuensche 1977), and black locust, Robinia pseudoacacia (McMichael et al. 1990). Despite its relatively recent adaptation to soybean as a favored host plant, the species does not appear to cause much economic damage to the crop. The small, white, maggot-like larvae live in the soil and feed on the Rhizobium nodules of the roots that are used by the plant for nitrogen-fixation. Soybean, of course, is famous for its compensatory abilities and can withstand considerable nodule injury without yield impact, and as a result losses from this insect are considered minor (Heatherly & Hodges 1998).

Signal flies wave their wings constantly.

The wings of signal flies are almost always in constant motion.

Of more interest from a natural history perspective, these flies—like other members of the Platystomatidae—are almost always seen with their wings in a constant “waving” motion as they walk about on the host leaves. This seems clearly an intraspecific “signaling” behavior (and the source of the family’s common name), with the pattern of markings on the wings and the particular sequence of movements of the wings combining to provide species-specific signals for mate recruitment. Some Asian members of the family are famous for the remarkably elongated eye stalks of the males, which aid in intraspecific male-to-male combat behaviors that provide selection pressure for even more elongate eye stalks. Sadly, our North American species exhibit no such modifications of the head, but their strangely tubular mouthparts do give them the appearance of wearing a “gas mask.”

gas mask

The strangely tubular mouthparts give adults the appearance of wearing a “gas mask.”

Information on the biology of adult platystomatids is limited, but a wide range of adult foods, e.g. nectar, honeydew, plant sap, bird droppings, and carrion, have been reported for this species, and R. quadrifasciata males have been observed to feed females globules of liquid during mating.

REFERENCES:

Eastman, C. E. & A. L. Wuensche. 1977. A new insect damaging nodule of soybeans: Rivellia quadrifasciata (Macquarl). Journal of the Georgia Entomological Society 12:190–199.

Foote, B. A., B. D. Bowker & B. A. McMichael. 1987. Host plants for North American species of Rivellia (Diptera, Platystomatidae). Entomological News 98:135–139 [Biodiversity Heritage].

Heatherly & Hodges. 1998. Soybean Production in the Midsouth. CRC Press LLC, Boca Raton, Florida, 416 pp. [Google Books].

McMichael,  B. A., B. A. Foote & B. D. Bowker, B. D. 1990. Biology of Rivellia melliginis (Diptera: Platystomatidae), a consumer of the nitrogen-fixing root nodules of black locust (Leguminosae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 83(5):967–974 [abstract].

Namba, R. 1956. A revision of the flies of the genus Rivellia (Otitidae, Diptera) of America north of Mexico. Proceedings of the U.S. National Museum 106:21–84 [Biodiversity Heritage].

Copyright Ted C. MacRae 2013

T.G.I.Flyday—fuzzy wuzzy wuz a…

Megaphora? sp. | Lyon Co., Nevada

Megaphora? sp. | Lyon Co., Nevada

I’m back after an uncharacteristically lengthy absence, due not to loss of desire or inspiration but rather a malfunctioning computer. Repeated attempts to restore connectivity were unsuccessful, and heavy travel during the past week only exacerbated the situation. However, all is well now (for the time being—hopefully a new machine will arrive before my current one bites the dust), and as a peace offering until I can post something more substantial I offer this photo of a robber fly (family Asilidae) that I photographed near Wellington Springs in Lyon Co., Nevada during my late August Great Basin collecting trip. The fly was found very much alive but torpidly clinging to the stem of Chrysothamnus viscidiflorus (yellow rabbitbrush). My best guess is something in the genus Megaphorus (correction or confirmation by any passing fly guys would be much appreciated).

Speaking of my Great Basin collecting trip, I’m putting together an “iReport” of the trip featuring a general synopsis and photographs taken exclusively with my iPhone. Don’t snicker—when used within its capabilities an iPhone can take quite good photographs. I carry mine with me at all times despite also carrying a “real” camera and use it in situations that play to its strengths and don’t require the big camera. At any rate, look for something in the next day or so.

Copyright © Ted C. MacRae 2013